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Table 4 Concentration index of household catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam

  Overall Households with at least one member with NCDs Households without any member with NCDs P-valuea
Catastrophic health expenditure, Concentration index (SE)
 Slum areas −0.35 (0.07)*** −0.30 (0.09)*** −0.37 (0.12)** 0.60
 Non-slum areas −0.29 (0.10)** −0.31 (0.12)** −0.19 (0.17) 0.54
     P-valueb 0.60 0.94 0.38  
Impoverishment, Concentration index (SE)
 Slum areas −0.40 (0.08)*** −0.42 (0.12)*** −0.36 (0.10)*** 0.70
 Non-slum areas −0.23 (0.23) −0.26 (0.35) −0.21 (0.30) 0.92
     P-valueb 0.50 0.65 0.63  
  1. NCDs non-communicable diseases, SE standard error
  2. aIndependent t-test to compare between households with at least one member with and without NCDs
  3. bIndependent t-test to compare households in slum and non-slum areas within each column
  4. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 (t-test to compare the concentration index with 0)