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Table 2 Out-of-pocket payment for healthcare as a share of household capacity to pay and total household expenditure

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment associated with non-communicable diseases in urban Hanoi, Vietnam

  Overall Households with at least one member with NCDs Households without any member with NCDs P-valuea
Out-of-pocket payment for healthcare as a share of household’s capacity to pay, Median (Interquartile range)
 Slum areas 6.2 (1.8–17.9) 14.8 (5.1–35.2) 4.5 (1.4–15.0) <0.001
 Non-slum areas 6.2 (1.8–14.4) 11.2 (3.2–22.5) 4.5 (1.2–11.0) <0.001
     P-valueb 0.29 0.02 0.21  
Out-of-pocket payment for healthcare as a share of total household expenditure, Median (Interquartile range)
 Slum areas 3.5 (1.0–10.4) 8.3 (3.1–17.3) 2.7 (0.8–8.0) <0.001
 Non-slum areas 3.6 (1.1–9.2) 7.2 (2.0–14.3) 2.9 (0.8–6.7) <0.001
     P-valueb 0.95 0.11 0.63  
  1. NCDs non-communicable diseases
  2. aMann-Whitney test to compare between households with at least one member with and without NCDs
  3. bMann-Whitney test to compare between households in slum and non-slum areas