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Table 3 Unadjusted (OR) and Adjusted (aOR) Odds Ratios of factors significantly associated with general ill health (Receiving outpatient services in past 12 months) and severe ill health (obtaining inpatient services within past 12 months) in African ASRs in HK respectively (n=374)

From: A lost tribe in the city: health status and needs of African asylum seekers and refugees in Hong Kong

  Outpatient services Inpatient services
  OR (95 % C.I.) aOR (95 % C.I.) OR (95 % C.I.) aOR (95 % C.I.)
Gender 0.8 (0.49–1.30) 0.55 (0.24–1.28) 0.71 (0.43–1.20) 0.39 (0.17–0.88)
Intermediary Determinants
Material Circumstances
 Housing/accommodation Problems 1.96 (1.19–3.23)* 0.61 (0.25–1.49) - -
 Problems with case officer 1.94 (1.28–2.95)* 2.80 (1.35–5.79)* 2.08 (1.36–3.19)* 3.76 (1.97–7.18)*
Individual and Behavioural circumstances
 Age - - 0.97 (0.94–0.99)* 0.94 (0.89–0.98)*
 Place of Origin (North & Eastern Africa)     
  Central and Southern Africa 1.16 (0.67–2.01) 1.19 (0.51–2.82) 0.57 (0.32–1.04) 0.53 (0.22–1.23)
  Western Africa 1.7 (1.07–2.72)* 1.35 (0.62–2.97) 1.15 (0.72–1.83) 0.89 (0.44–1.81)
 Alcohol consumptionab (None)     
  Infrequently - - 0.59 (0.32–1.10) 0.38 (0.16–0.90)*
  Frequently - - 0.74 (0.39–1.40) 0.94 (0.37–2.42)
 Smokingac (None)
  Light Smoker 1.25 (0.52–3.03) 1.27 (0.34–4.73) - -
  Heavy Smoker 0.52 (0.32–0.85)* 0.52 (0.22–1.28) - -
 Recreational Drugsa 2.79 (1.17–6.63)* 3.48 (0.92–13.17) - -
 Frequent Exercisead - - 2.07 (1.30–3.30)* 1.98 (1.01–3.90)*
 Multiple Sex partnersa (None)
  One 0.7 (0.44–1.12) 0.48 (0.23–0.97)* 0.38 (0.23–0.62)* 0.24 (0.11–0.48)*
  More than one 0.5 (0.28–0.92)* 0.49 (0.18–1.31) 0.61 (0.33–1.12) 0.59 (0.23–1.49)
 Illness, Injury, or symptomsae 9.1 (5.59–14.81)* 6.00 (2.94–12.25)* 4.15 (2.66–6.47)* 3.32 (1.68–6.57)*
 Chronic illnessae 9 (5.32–15.22)* 3.47 (1.66–7.27)* 3.78 (2.44–5.86)* 2.18 (1.10–4.30)*
Psychosocial Factors
 Marital Status (Single)
  Married 1.84 (1.05–3.25)* 1.45 (0.50–4.22) 1.67 (0.98–2.84) 2.60 (1.00–6.75)*
  Separated 0.74 (0.41–1.36) 2.98 (1.02–8.68)* 0.61 (0.32–1.20) 2.20 (0.78–6.24)
 Living Companion (Alone)
  With Family 1.38 (0.79–2.41) 0.97 (0.34–2.75) 1.5 (0.87–2.58) 0.90 (0.36–2.25)
  Others 2.92 (1.05–8.07)* 2.03 (0.41–10.01) 1.91 (0.81–4.48) 0.92 (0.27–3.15)
 PHQ2 Score (Depression screen) 2.4 (1.53–3.77)* 1.08 (0.89–1.31) 1.17 (0.76–1.81) 0.96 (0.81–1.14)
Health System Factors
 Difficulties accessing medical facilities (Yes) 9.69 (5.64–16.64)* 3.29 (1.48–7.31)* 7.55 (3.95–14.43)* 4.12 (1.73–9.79)*
 Satisfaction with Medical Services (Not used)
  Fair/Poor 7.90 (4.06-xxx) 4.66 (1.65–13.13)* 11.29 (4.96–25.68)* 8.83 (2.83–27.53)*
  Good-Excellent 10.58 (5.69–19.68) 5.73 (2.01–16.35)* 8.1 (3.70–17.73)* 4.08 (1.35–12.32)*
Structural Determinants
Socioeconomic Position
 Status in HK (refugee)
  Asylum Seeker 0.63 (0.27–1.44) 1.65 (0.56–4.87) 0.94 (0.44–2.00) 2.53 (0.92–6.95)
  Torture Claimant 0.53 (0.22–1.24) 0.43 (0.14–1.33) 0.73 (0.33–1.60) 1.79 (0.62–5.21)
  Asylum seeker & Torture Claimant 0.26 (0.10–0.67)* 1.71 (0.41–7.11) 0.19 (0.07–0.54)* 0.49 (0.13–1.88)
 Education level in country of origin (None)
  Primary 0.15 (0.07–0.35)* 0.73 (0.19–2.80) 2.78 (1.29–5.99)* 0.79 (0.22–2.87)
  Secondary 0.44 (0.21–0.91)* 1.03 (0.27–3.90) 2.24 (1.10–4.54)* 0.64 (0.18–2.23)
  University or above 0.68 (0.35–1.32) 0.72 (0.15–3.49) 3.72 (1.62–8.52)* 0.71 (0.17–3.00)
 Occupation in country of origin (Professional)
  Supervisory/Junior Managerial 1.73 (0.88–3.42) 2.90 (1.14–7.36)* 0.85 (0.45–1.60) 1.29 (0.54–3.07)
  Skilled Manual Worker 0.51 (0.29–0.92)* 1.11 (0.41–2.98) 0.46 (0.25–0.87) 0.86 (0.33–2.20)
  Semi/Un-skilled Manual Worker 0.68 (0.34–1.35) 2.09 (0.71–6.17) 0.72 (0.35–1.46) 2.26 (0.79–6.49)
  Casual/Unemployed 1.2 (0.66–2.17) 2.76 (1.15–6.62)* 0.93 (0.52–1.67) 1.99 (0.87–4.56)
Discrimination
 Everyday Discrimination Scale 1.04 (1.01–1.08)* 1.00 (0.96–1.05) - -
  1. (*) – p < 0.05
  2. (a) - Reported in the past 30 days; (b) - Alcohol Consumption – None = does not drink, Infrequently = <5 drinks/week, Frequently= > 5 drinks/week; (c) - Smoking – Light Smokers = <10 cigarettes per day, Heavy Smokers= > 10 Cigarettes per day; (d) - Exercise – No exercise and infrequent exercise was combined to give two groups, Frequent exercise = > 15 days with exercise; (e) - Based on the participants own judgement