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Table 1 Basic descriptive of African ASRs in Hong Kong, assessing different demographic factors as well as the social determinants of health as defined by the CSDH framework (Solar & Irwin, 2010)

From: A lost tribe in the city: health status and needs of African asylum seekers and refugees in Hong Kong

Socio-demographics characteristics
 Gender
  Male 292 (78.0 %)
  Female 82 (21.9 %)
 Age Group (Mean: 31.52, SD: ±7.41)
  18–27 yrs 107 (28.6 %)
  28–37 yrs 194 (51.9 %)
  38–47 yrs 66 (17.6 %)
  48 yrs + 7 (1.9 %)
 Received inpatient servicesa
  Yes 146 (39.0 %)
  No 228 (61.0 %)
 Place of origin
  Northern & Eastern Africa 144 (38.5 %)
  Central and Southern Africa 79 (21.1 %)
  Western Africa 151 (40.4 %)
 Length of Residence in Hong Kong
  Less than 5 years 280 (74.9 %)
  5 to 10 years 89 (23.8 %)
  11 years plus 5 (1.3 %)
 Received outpatient servicesa
  Yes 217 (58.0 %)
  No 157 (42.0 %)
Intermediary factors
 Material/Living Circumstances
  Problems with Accommodation
   No 80 (21.4 %)
   Yes 294 (78.6 %)
  Problems with food packages
   No 132 (35.3 %)
   Yes 242 (64.7 %)
  Problems with case officer
   No 174 (46.5 %)
   Yes 200 (53.5 %)
 Biological/Behavioural Circumstances
  Alcohol consumptionbc
   None 268 (71.7 %)
   Infrequently 57 (15.2 %)
   Frequently 49 (13.1 %)
  Smokingbd
   None 260 (69.5 %)
   Light Smoker 24 (6.4 %)
   Heavy Smoker 90 (24.1 %)
  Recreational Drugsb
   No 342 (91.4 %)
   Yes 32 (8.6 %)
  Exercisebe
   Little or none 276 (73.8 %)
   Frequent 98 (26.2 %)
  Multiple Sex partnersbf  
   None 201 (53.7 %)
   Only one 117 (31.3 %)
   More than one 56 (15.0 %)
  Illness, Injury, or symptomsbf
   No 193 (51.6 %)
   Yes 181 (48.4 %)
  Chronic illnessbf
   No 223 (59.6 %)
   Yes 151 (40.4 %)
 Psychosocial Factors
  Religion
   Atheist 14 (3.7 %)
   Christian/Catholic 211 (56.4 %)
   Muslim 142 (38.0 %)
   Other 7 (1.9 %)
  Marital Status
   Single 252 (67.4 %)
   Married 71 (19.0 %)
   Divorced/Separated/Widowed 51 (13.6 %)
  Living Companion
   Alone 286 (76.5 %)
   With Family 65 (17.4 %)
   With Others 23 (6.1 %)
  General healthf
   Very Good/Excellent 72 (19.2 %)
   Good 114 (30.5 %)
   Fair to Poor 188 (50.3 %)
  Health vs. locals of same agef
   Better or Much Better 162 (43.3 %)
   Same 133 (35.6 %)
   Worse or Much Worse 79 (21.1 %)
  Health vs. prior arrival in HKf
   Better or Much Better 148 (39.6 %)
   Same 110 (29.4 %)
   Worse or Much Worse 116 (31.0 %)
  PHQ2 Score (Depression screen)
   Below 2 239 (63.9 %)
   Equal or above 2 135 (36.1 %)
Healthsystem factors
 Satisfaction with Medical Services
  Not used 87 (23.3 %)
  Fair/Poor 105 (28.1 %)
  Good-Excellent 182 (48.6 %)
 Difficulties Accessing Medical Facilities
  No 104 (27.8 %)
  Yes 270 (72.2 %)
Structural factors
 Socio-economic Position
  ASR Status
   Refugee 32 (8.6 %)
   Asylum Seeker Claimant 172 (46.0 %)
   Torture Claimant 115 (30.7 %)
   Asylum Seeker & Torture Claimant 55 (14.7 %)
  Education Level in country of origin
   None 55 (14.7 %)
   Primary 87 (23.3 %)
   High School 177 (47.3 %)
   University or above 55 (14.7 %)
  Occupation in country of origin
   Professional 124 (33.1 %)
   Supervisory 57 (15.2 %)
   Skilled manual worker 74 (19.8 %)
   Semi/Unskilled manual worker 44 (11.8 %)
   Casual worker or unemployed 75 (20.1 %)
 Discrimination
  Everyday Discrimination Scale: Mean = 12.87; SD = ±7.01
  1. aReported in the past 12 months; bReported in the past 30 days; cAlcohol Consumption – None = does not drink, Infrequently = <5 drinks/week, Frequently= > 5 drinks/week; dSmoking – Light Smokers = <10 cigarettes per day, Heavy Smokers= > 10 Cigarettes per day; eExercise – Little or none = <15 days with exercise, Frequent= > 15 days with exercise; fBased on the participants own judgement