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Table 2 Predictors of health care utilization, Brazil

From: Changes in health care inequity in Brazil between 2008 and 2013

  Doctor visit Dentist Hospital admission Usual Source of Care
2013 (v. 2008) 1.03*** 1.11*** 0.85*** 1.05***
1.02,1.04 1.08,1.13 0.80,0.91 1.03,1.06
Female (v. male) 1.25*** 1.16*** 1.04 1.07***
1.24,1.26 1.14,1.19 0.98,1.11 1.06,1.08
Age 24–35 (v. 18–24) 1.06*** 0.96** 1.22** 1
1.04,1.08 0.93,0.99 1.08,1.38 0.98,1.01
Age 35–44 1.04*** 0.9*** 1.2** 1.01
1.02,1.07 0.88,0.93 1.05,1.36 0.99,1.02
Age 45–54 1.05*** 0.83*** 1.12 1
1.03,1.08 0.80,0.86 0.98,1.27 0.99,1.02
Age 55–64 1.07*** 0.72*** 1.12 1.01
1.04,1.09 0.69,0.75 0.98,1.29 0.99,1.03
Age 65 and older 1.12*** 0.55*** 1.42*** 1
1.09,1.15 0.52,0.58 1.24,1.63 0.98,1.02
Non-white (v. white) 1 0.94*** 1 0.99
0.99,1.01 0.92,0.96 0.93,1.07 0.98,1.00
Live in rural (v. urban) 0.98* 1 0.91* 0.99
0.96,1.00 0.96,1.04 0.83,0.99 0.97,1.02
Northeast Region (v. North) 1.02* 1.12*** 0.81*** 0.99
1.00,1.04 1.07,1.17 0.73,0.90 0.96,1.02
Southeast 1.08*** 1.1*** 0.81*** 1.11***
1.06,1.11 1.06,1.15 0.72,0.91 1.08,1.14
South 1.08*** 1.21*** 1.03 1.13***
1.05,1.10 1.16,1.26 0.92,1.15 1.10,1.17
Center 1.04*** 1.11*** 1.09 1.01
1.02,1.06 1.06,1.16 0.98,1.21 0.98,1.05
Literate (v. iliterate) 1.03*** 1.59*** 0.82*** 0.99
1.02,1.05 1.49,1.69 0.75,0.90 0.98,1.01
Primary complete (v. less than primary) 1.03*** 1.23*** 0.96 0.99
1.02,1.05 1.19,1.27 0.88,1.05 0.97,1.00
High school complete 1.07*** 1.4*** 0.93 0.98**
1.05,1.08 1.36,1.44 0.85,1.02 0.97,0.99
College or more 1.11*** 1.63*** 0.95 0.99
1.09,1.12 1.58,1.69 0.83,1.07 0.97,1.01
FHS (v. UBS) 1.05*** 1.04* 1.22* 1.14***
1.02,1.08 1.00,1.07 1.02,1.46 1.11,1.17
Privatea 1.34*** 1.23*** 2.07*** 1.14***
1.31,1.37 1.20,1.27 1.73,2.46 1.11,1.16
Poor (v. not poor) b 0.93*** 0.76*** 1.08 1.01
0.91,0.95 0.73,0.79 0.96,1.22 0.99,1.03
Moderate need (v. low) c 1.31*** 1.04*** 3.15*** 1.08***
1.28,1.35 1.02,1.07 2.69,3.69 1.06,1.10
High needc 1.56*** 0.98 5.97*** 1.15***
1.53,1.59 0.95,1.01 5.18,6.87 1.12,1.17
FHS#Poor 1.03* 1.11*** 1.08 1.04**
1.00,1.05 1.05,1.17 0.93,1.25 1.01,1.06
Private Plan#Poor 1.04** 1.12*** 0.78** 0.99
1.02,1.07 1.05,1.19 0.65,0.93 0.96,1.02
FHS#Moderate need 1 0.81* 0.95***
0.97,1.03   0.65,0.99 0.92,0.97
FHS#High need 0.98 0.83 0.92***
0.95,1.01   0.69,1.00 0.89,0.94
Private Plan#Moderate need 0.86*** 0.78* 0.97*
0.84,0.88   0.63,0.97 0.94,0.99
Private plan#High need 0.76*** 0.71*** 0.91***
0.74,0.78   0.58,0.86 0.88,0.93
N 317462 317462 317462 317462
  1. Note: Results are prevalence ratios and 95 % CIs from multivariable Poisson regression models that included all covariates and controlled for survey design. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001. Covariates included were sex, age, race, place of residence, literacy, formal education, type of healthcare coverage, wealth (poor vs. not poor), and health need
  2. aPrivate health insurance that only covers dental care was included in the category “private plan” only for the outcome probability of dentist visit
  3. bBeing poor was defined as being at the bottom 40 % (two lowest quintiles) of the distribution of the wealth index
  4. cHealth needs were estimated by applying factor analysis to the variables self-reported health status, reporting of activities interrupted due to health problems, reporting of chronic diseases, and reporting of comorbidity. The latent variable was then categorized into low need (bottom 50 %), high need (top 25 %) and moderate need (25 % between low and high)