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Table 6 Effect of insurance on poverty

From: Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

  Naive model 2SRI
  Coefficient ME Coefficient ME
Insurance −0.289*** −0.096 −0.225*** −0.075
  (0.040)   (0.043)  
Age 0.001 0.001 0.005*** 0.002
  (0.001)   (0.002)  
Male −0.200*** −0.069 −0.234*** −0.081
  (0.041)   (0.042)  
Household size 0.056*** 0.019 0.058*** 0.019
  (0.008)   (0.008)  
Rural locality 0.285*** 0.101 0.290*** 0.102
  (0.041)   (0.041)  
Year 2009 0.476*** 0.161 0.436*** 0.147
  (0.034)   (0.035)  
Good health status −0.131 −0.046 −0.179* −0.063
  (0.078)   (0.079)  
Use of out-patient services 0.019 0.006 0.114* 0.040
  (0.047)   (0.052)  
Use of in-patient services 0.406** 0.151 0.429** 0.160
  (0.133)   (0.134)  
Occupation: Farmer −0.030 −0.101 −0.088 −0.029
  (0.060)   (0.061)  
 Government/Self employed −0.264*** −0.089 −0.280*** −0.095
  (0.060)   (0.060)  
 Unemployed 0.322** 0.117 0.282** 0.102
  (0.106)   (0.108)  
Education: Primary −0.241*** −0.079 −0.240*** −0.079
  (0.052)   (0.052)  
 Secondary −0.356*** −0.119 −0.291*** −0.098
  (0.046)   (0.049)  
 Tertiary −0.997*** −0.248 −0.811*** −0.216
  (0.091)   (0.100)  
Residual    −0.608*** −0.208
    (0.136)  
Constant −0.408**   −0.363**  
  (0.126)   (0.127)  
Observations 6,448   6,406  
  1. Standard errors in parentheses ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05: ME- marginal effects 2SRI-2-Stage Residual Inclusion