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Table 3 Summary results of effect of health insurance on OOPE, expenditure, CE and poverty

From: Can health insurance protect against out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenditures and also support poverty reduction? Evidence from Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme

  OOPE CE POVERTY
  Coefficient Probability Coefficient ME Coefficient ME
IV estimates       
2-Stage Least Squares −1.984** −0.862     
2-Stage Residual Inclusion    −0.637*** −0.031 −0.225*** −0.075
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01: ME-marginal effects; †calculated as (eβ-1): effect of dummy variable in a semi-logarithmic equations where β is the regression coefficient