Skip to main content

Table 4 T-test on perceived differences in quality of care between insured and uninsured patients

From: Health insurance and quality of care: Comparing perceptions of quality between insured and uninsured patients in Ghana’s hospitals

Indicators of quality of care Insured (N = 544) Uninsured (N = 274) t-test
Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.
Financial access
 NHIS pays the cost of all treatment 3.85 1.16 3.48 1.16 4.073***
 Cost of services are affordable 3.52 1.11 3.20 1.24 3.522***
 Exempted patients are treated free of charge 3.97 1.06 3.52 1.09 5.396***
 Only official fees are charged 3.70 1.15 3.89 1.04 −2.376**
Fairness of care
 Staff treat all patients fairly 3.40 1.36 3.49 1.32 0.863
 Quality of drugs is same for all patients 3.37 1.30 3.40 1.30 0.316
 Patients treated on first-come-first-served basis 3.92 1.34 3.97 1.28 0.487
 Very ill patients are treated first 4.26 1.13 4.22 1.12 −0.457
Adequacy of resources & services
 Doctors are sufficient 2.79 1.30 2.92 1.28 −1.303
 Supplies are sufficient 3.14 1.13 3.04 1.17 −1.136
 Rooms in OPD are sufficient 3.24 1.31 3.24 1.29 0.080
 Waiting time is reasonable 2.75 1.37 2.94 1.30 −1.897*
 Drugs are available 3.29 1.27 3.33 1.23 0.354
Effectiveness of treatment
 Pharmacy instructions are clear 4.56 0.63 4.51 0.65 0.988
 Treatment is effective for recovery and cure 4.14 0.86 3.99 0.85 2.349**
 Quality drugs are given to patients 3.97 0.91 3.92 0.86 0.714
Technical care
 Patients are told diagnosis 3.38 1.48 3.30 1.44 0.691
 Patients are physically examined 3.92 1.24 3.75 1.35 1.745*
 Lab. and other tests are done 3.92 1.26 3.64 1.35 2.838**
 Patients are involved in their care 3.68 1.32 3.71 1.22 −0.274
Interpersonal care
 Staff show compassion & support to patients 4.08 0.97 4.19 0.89 −1.519
 Staff are polite & respectful to patients 4.12 0.98 4.19 0.91 −1.008
Overall perceived quality of care 89.48 11.263 88.38 11.836 −1.212
  1. *p ≤ .10; **p ≤ .05; ***p ≤ .01 (two-tailed test)