Cluster A: Delegated control
Cluster B: Demobilization
o Behaviour of grassroots stakeholders shaped by process, thereby containing dissent (e.g. grassroots stakeholders positioned to act as ‘gatekeepers’ rather than as community representatives; meeting norms discourage certain types of input; paperwork/reporting begins to shape thinking) [5, 19, 22].
o Energy of grassroots groups occupied by process, thereby containing dissent.
o Process embeds and transmits logic of status quo (e.g. neoliberalism, colonialism, structural racism and misogyny, etc.).
o Participants lose faith in participatory processes/participation .
o Community leaders who have championed process lose credibility .
o Energy of grassroots groups sapped by process, thereby diminishing capacity.
o Participants/groups face sanctions for resisting process as defined (see below).
Cluster C: Contraction of state role in public service delivery/regulation
Cluster D: Sanctions
o Success of project relies on free labour of participants.
The broader literature emphasizes that participants resisting or building alternatives to official processes can, in some contexts, face sanctions ranging from loss of paid work  to imprisonment and violence .