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Table 4 Factors associated with utilization of services among all respondents in past two years (n = 18386), 2005 and 2010 samples combined (logistical regression)

From: The impact of primary healthcare reform on equity of utilization of services in the province of Quebec: a 2003–2010 follow-up

Variables in model   Hospitalization ER Affiliation to family doctor ≥1 visit to PHC past 2 years
   OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Year (ref.: 2005) 2010 1.257 .981 1.610 1.141 .923 1.409 .955 .747 1.222 .689 .525 .903
SES Low .806 .652 .995 .824 .695 .978 1.460 1.212 1.758 1.118 .898 1.391
(ref.: Very low) High .862 .688 1.079 .859 .717 1.029 1.881 1.548 2.286 1.812 1.432 2.293
  Very high .918 .718 1.173 .796 .656 .966 2.035 1.650 2.511 2.168 1.667 2.819
Interaction year × SES Low × 2010 1.044 .772 1.411 1.216 .945 1.565 1.064 .797 1.422 1.799 1.301 2.489
(ref.: Very low x 2010) High × 2010 1.163 .857 1.578 1.003 .778 1.292 1.227 .918 1.640 1.408 1.009 1.963
  Very high × 2010 .931 .671 1.293 1.132 .867 1.477 1.167 .863 1.577 1.190 .837 1.694
Sex (ref.: Male) Female 1.387 1.250 1.540 .955 .882 1.035 1.837 1.684 2.004 2.319 2.086 2.578
Age 30-44 .935 .795 1.099 .828 .732 .937 1.458 1.288 1.651 1.197 1.029 1.392
(ref.: 18–29) 45-64 .652 .552 .771 .548 .483 .622 2.591 2.277 2.949 1.214 1.038 1.421
  65 or over .895 .742 1.081 .445 .382 .519 5.137 4.286 6.158 1.168 .953 1.432
Level of education Secondary .814 .698 .948 1.003 .881 1.142 1.029 .882 1.200 1.181 .997 1.401
(ref.: <Secondary) College .771 .649 .916 .981 .849 1.133 .924 .784 1.091 1.466 1.208 1.778
  University .729 .616 .864 .892 .774 1.027 .873 .741 1.028 1.446 1.200 1.743
Immigrant status Has immigrated <10 years .893 .704 1.133 .718 .600 .860 .524 .435 .632 .646 .528 .789
(ref.: Born in Canada) Has immigrated ≥10 years 1.013 .866 1.184 1.064 .945 1.198 .977 .855 1.115 .970 .824 1.142
Morbidity ≥1 risk factor 1.159 .991 1.355 1.094 .974 1.230 2.398 2.100 2.738 2.929 2.465 3.480
(ref.: None) 1 chr. disease 1.540 1.347 1.761 1.476 1.332 1.634 1.722 1.537 1.928 2.313 1.992 2.687
  ≥2 chr. diseases 2.863 2.399 3.419 2.429 2.084 2.832 2.657 2.165 3.261 3.429 2.605 4.514
Perceived health Good .579 .507 .663 .655 .583 .735 1.127 .980 1.297 .748 .626 .895
(ref.: Poor/Average) Very good .398 .344 .461 .514 .456 .580 1.191 1.034 1.372 .698 .583 .835
  Excellent .383 .322 .455 .425 .369 .489 1.133 .970 1.324 .533 .441 .644
  1. Note: Statistically significant results (p < 0.05) are in bold