Skip to main content

Table 3 The process of thematic content analysis of the interviews and natural group discussions

From: “A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?” A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer

Phases Themes
Phase 1 Initial themes identified
After six interviews: interview with three mothers and three young women. - Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination
- HPV vaccination preparedness
- Perceptions of the child vaccines
- Perceptions of Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) and preparedness
- Gender and sexuality
- Male circumcision
- Information on HPV vaccination and Pap smears
- Advice for National Immunization Program (NIP) and National Screening Program (NSP)
Phase 2 New themes identified; themes merged and renamed
After 13 interviews: interview with seven young women. - Perceptions of HPV vaccination and participation decision
- Perception of other vaccination of the NIP
- Perceptions of Pap smears and participation decision
- Male circumcision
- Role as parent or daughter
- Taboo topics: Double sexual standard, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), Sexual
- Transmitted Infections (STIs), cancer, sex, and homosexuality
- Information: Sharing and obtaining
- Recommendations for NIP and NSP
Phase 3 Intersectionality applied: final themes identified
After 20 interviews and two group discussions: - Barriers to participation in HPV vaccination and Pap smears: distrust towards side effects and Dutch healthcare system, lack of knowledge, language barriers, and embarrassment due to FGM and having a Dutch, male, non-Muslim practitioner
• Interview with four young women and three mothers.
• Each group discussion with 12 to 14 mothers. - Information and decision-making: Informal sources of information and collective decision-making
- HPV risk perception: men’s roles in HPV transmission and cultural stigmas on HPV