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Table 3 Marginal effect of independent variables on the expected expenditure conditional on positive values (N = 7308). The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Pelotas, Brazil

From: Determinants of out-of-pocket health expenditure on children: an analysis of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort

  Marginal effect – Expected conditional expenditure  
  Medicine Medical care Laboratory tests and x-rays Private health insurance
Family income 0.1618a 0.0702b −0.0164 + 0.0187 +
Maternal education (at child’s birth) 0.0399a 0.0200b 0.0071 + 0.0228b
Number of hospital visits 0.1439a −0.0291 + 0.0094 + 0.0292 +
Number of people living in the household −0.0590a −0.0320b −0.0107 + −0.0001 +
Maternal age 0.0554a 0.0085 + −0.0539b 0.0243 +
Squared maternal age −0.0009a −0.0001 + 0.0009b −0.0004 +
Child’s weight −0.0228a −0.0243a −0.0090 + 0.0079a
Head of household – father −0.0327 + 0.0714 + 0.1201 + −0.0737 +
Head of household – mother −0.1154c −0.0116 + 0.1252 + 0.0228 +
Private health insurance 0.2322a 0.1206b 0.1072c -
Healthy mother −0.0856b −0.0706 + −0.1122c −0.0542 +
Healthy child −0.5785a −0.1393c −0.0329 + −0.0206 +
Birth weight (standardized) 0.0309c −0.0064 + −0.0116 + 0.0366 +
  1. Total of 7308 observations; 2436 observations over the three follow-ups examined (2436 × 3)
  2. Significance achieved with a z-test
  3. aIndicates significance at 1 %; bat 5 %; cat 10 %; and + indicates the variable is not significant even at 10 %