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Table 3 Percentage of reviewed studies reporting each overarching and specific barrier to specialist outpatient care (n = 74)

From: A systematic review of barriers to optimal outpatient specialist services for individuals with prevalent chronic diseases: what are the unique and common barriers experienced by patients in high income countries?

Barrier to outpatient services Percentage of studies (n) References
Availability 28.4 (21) [3234, 37, 39, 40, 52, 55, 58, 6163, 67, 68, 71, 76, 77, 79, 89, 93, 95]
  Delays 6.8 (5)
Provider availability 8.1 (6)
Consultation time 6.8 (5)
Service availability 6.8 (5)
Referral 11.0 (8)
Accessibility 14.9 (11) [33, 36, 37, 54, 60, 61, 65, 67, 69, 77, 79]
  Environment, parking 9.4 (7)
Transport 5.4 (4)
Professional practice location 2.7 (2)
Lodgings 1.4 (1)
Affordability 23.0 (17) [19, 32, 36, 39, 47, 49, 55, 57, 61, 69, 74, 75, 83, 87, 96, 98, 103]
  Medical fees 5.4 (4)
Health insurance 10.8 (8)
Prescription fees 4.1 (3)
Cost of illness, economic 4.1 (3)
Affordability, general 5.4 (4)
Accommodation 25.7 (19) [3234, 37, 52, 59, 60, 63, 64, 70, 71, 75, 77, 80, 87, 89, 90, 92, 101]
  Appointments and scheduling 4.1 (3)
Wait times 9.5 (7)
Out of hours care 6.8 (5)
Continuity of care 10.8 (8)
Provider contact 4.1 (3)
Accommodation, general 2.7 (2)
Acceptability 75.7 (56) [18, 19, 32, 34, 3640, 42, 45, 47, 5052, 5457, 5965, 67, 68, 70, 71, 7380, 8494, 96, 97, 99103]
  Healthcare disparity, demographic 44.6 (33)
Decisional involvement 16.2 (12)
Health communication 27.0 (20)
Professional-patient relations (interpersonal skills) 17.6 (13)
Choice of professional 2.7 (2)
Clinical competence (technical skills) 8.2 (6)
Patient motivation or willingness to accept care 5.4 (4)
Other barriers to optimal outpatient services 51.4 (38) [32, 33, 3537, 41, 4348, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 5861, 63, 6567, 69, 7173, 76, 77, 7982, 84, 89, 93]
  Need assessment, undetected or untreated issues 25.7 (19)
Service amenities 12.2 (9)
Consumer information 32.4 (24)
Patient care team, coordination and medical record 9.5 (7)
Self care 5.4 (4)
Medical errors 2.7 (2)