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Table 4 Multivariate Odds Ratios for variables associated with diabetes among men and women

From: Gender-specific epidemiology of diabetes: a representative cross-sectional study

  MEN WOMEN
Variable OR (95% CI OR) p value OR (95% CI OR) p value
Age group       
   18 to 39 years 1.00    1.00   
   40 to 59 years 5.28 (2.70 – 10.30) <0.001 3.28 (2.01 – 5.35) <0.001
   60 years and over 14.58 (7.10 – 29.93) <0.001 7.08 (4.17 – 12.01) <0.001
Gross annual household income       
   Up to $20,000 1.00    1.00   
   $20,001–40,000 1.31 (0.81 – 2.12) 0.27 1.03 (0.72 – 1.46) 0.88
   $40,001–60,000 0.73 (0.38 – 1.38) 0.33 0.65 (0.40 – 1.07) 0.09
   More than $60,000 0.39 (0.19 – 0.84) 0.02 0.49 (0.29 – 0.85) 0.01
Family history of diabetes       
   No 1.00    1.00   
   Yes 3.66 (2.47 – 5.41) <0.001 2.78 (2.10 – 3.70) <0.001
Body Mass Index       
   Acceptable 1.00    1.00   
   Overweight 1.45 (0.80 – 2.64) 0.221 1.49 (0.95 – 2.33) 0.08
   Obese 4.32 (2.39 – 7.83) <0.001 3.34 (2.15 – 5.19) <0.001
Smoking status       
   Non smoker 1.00      
   Ex-smoker 1.56 (1.01 – 2.42) 0.05    
   Current smoker 1.33 (0.77 – 2.31) 0.31    
High total blood cholesterol (>5.5 mmol/L)       
   No 1.00      
   Yes 0.50 (0.33 – 0.76) 0.001    
Alcohol risk       
   Non drinker, no risk     1.00   
   Low risk     0.47 (0.34 – 0.65) <0.001
   Intermediate to very high risk     0.93 (0.49 – 1.74) 0.81
Waist:hip ratio (>1.0 men, >0.85 women)       
   No     1.00   
   Yes     2.80 (1.81 – 4.31) <0.001
High blood pressure (>140/90 mmHg)       
   No     1.00   
   Yes     2.50 (1.64 – 3.83) <0.001
Cardiovascular disease       
   No     1.00   
   Yes     4.03 (0.00 – 32.0) <0.001
Mental health disorder       
   No     1.00   
   Yes     1.99 (1.26 – 3.14) 0.003
  1. OR Odds Ratio; CI Confidence Intervals