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Table 3 Self-reported use of GP care, outpatient care, hospital care, physical therapy, and home care, explained by ethnic background.

From: Ethnic background and differences in health care use: a national cross-sectional study of native Dutch and immigrant elderly in the Netherlands

  GP Outpat. specialist Hospital admiss. Physical therapy Homecare
N 1090 1088 1084 1085 1076
Crude analysis      
Ethnic background (Dutch = ref)      
-Turkish 2.78(1.98-3.90)*** 0.91(0.65-1.26) 1.45(0.95-2.23) 0.80(0.55-1.16) 0.48(0.31-0.75)***
-Moroccan 2.50(1.78-3.51)*** 1.04(0.74-1.45) 0.89(0.56-1.43) 0.57(0.39-0.86)** 0.13(0.07-0.27)***
-Antillean 1.63(1.17-2.25)*** 0.96(0.69-1.34) 1.00(0.63-1.57) 1.01(0.70-1.44) 0.61(0.40-0.93)*
-Surinamese 2.36(1.70-2.29)*** 1.37(0.99-1.90) 1.37(0.89-2.10) 1.16(0.81-1.64) 1.15(0.79-1.69)
Adjusted analysis      
Self-reported number of chronic conditions in respondent (cf. prespecified list; range 0 - 11) 1.44 (1.28-1.62)*** 1.49 (1.34-1.67)*** 1.53 (1.33-1.76)*** 1.35 (1.20-1.53)*** 1.32 (1.13-1.55)***
Self-rated general health (range: 1 to 5; 1 = excellent) 1.51 (1.27-1.80)*** 1.57 (1.31-1.88)*** 1.53 (1.20-1.94)*** 1.43 (1.17-1.74)*** 1.77 (1.36-2.31)***
Self-rated mental health (range: 0 to 100; the higher the score the better the mental health) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.99 (0.98-1.01) 0.99 (0.98-1.01) 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.01)
Gender (male = 1, female = 2) 0.83 (0.63-1.11) 0.91 (0.70-1.20) 1.66 (1.16-2.36)** 0.60 (0.45-0.81)* 0.53 (0.36-0.78)***
Age (continuous in years) 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 1.02 (1.00-1.04)* 1.02 (0.99-1.04) 0.98 (0.96-1.00)*** 1.09 (1.07-1.12)***
Educational level (no/primary education vs secondary and higher education) 1.17 (0.83-1.67) 1.16 (0.83-1.63) 0.96 (0.62-1.48) 1.03 0.71-1.49) 1.41 (0.90-2.21)
Standardized income (continuous in Euros) 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 1.00 (0.99-1.00) 1.00 (1.00-1.01) 1.00 (1.00-1.01)
Good Dutch language proficiency 1.10 (0.88-1.39) 1.46 (1.18-1.81)*** 1.33 (1.03-1.73)* 1.71 (1.35-2.18)*** 2.49 (1.80-3.46)***
Modern attitudes on care for family 0.98 (078-1.23) 1.01 (0.81-1.25) 1.06 (0.81-1.40) 0.90 (0.71-1.14) 1.22 (0.91-1.65)
Modern attitudes on male-female roles 1.12 (0.91-1.37)* 1.04 (0.86-1.30) 0.86 (0.67-1.11) 0.86 (0.69-1.07) 0.82 (0.62-1.09)
Modern attitudes on family values 0.74 (0.58-0.96) 1.04 (0.82-1.33) 1.23 (0.91-1.66) 0.93 (0.72-1.22) 1.20 (0.86-1.67)
Religiosity 1.06 (0.97-1.16) 0.99 (0.90-1.08) 0.93 (0.83-1.04) 0.91 (0.83-1.01) 1.07 (0.95-1.21)
Ethnic background (Dutch = ref)      
- Turkish 0.54 (0.25-1.18) 0.21 (0.09-0.46)*** 0.40 (0.15-1.08) 0.67 (0.29-1.55) 0.19 (0.05-0.68)**
- Moroccan 0.57 (0.26-1.24) 0.31 (0.14-0.67)** 0.28 (0.10-0.78)* 0.50 (0.21-1.18) 0.07 (0.02-0.29)***
- Antillean 1.06 (0.68-1.66) 0.84 (0.53-1.34) 1.07 (0.58-1.96) 0.78 (0.47-1.24) 0.67 (0.37-1.24)
- Surinamese 1.34 (0.85-2.13) 0.67 (0.40-1.02) 0.92 (0.51-1.65) 0.88 (0.55-1.42) 0.90 (0.52-1.58)
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Comparison of crude analysis (ethnic background only as independent) and full analysis (a theoretically defined set of explanatory factors is added to the ethnic background variable). Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals obtained with univariate (crude) and multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression analysis.