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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population

From: Changes in smoking prevalence among first- and second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany – an analysis of the 2005 Microcensus

  1st generation by duration of residence 1st generation (total) 2nd generation native-born Germans
  0–15 16–31 ≥ 32       
  n % n % n % n % n % n %
Gender and age group
Males 840   1223   1002   3510   1022   166522  
   18–24 94 11.2 59 4.8 0 0.0 174 5.0 427 41.8 16883 10.1
   25–44 684 81.4 876 71.6 186 18.6 1989 56.7 574 56.2 55026 33.0
   45–64 59 7.0 266 21.7 589 58.8 1056 30.1 17 1.7 56359 33.8
   65+ 3 0.4 22 18.0 227 22.7 291 8.3 4 0.4 38254 23.0
Females 868   1370   687   3368   1005   183309  
   18–24 186 21.4 67 4.9 0 0.0 294 8.7 460 45.8 16021 8.7
   25–44 590 68.0 850 62.0 132 19.2 1799 53.4 518 51.5 54309 29.6
   45–64 81 9.3 406 29.6 455 66.2 1090 32.4 24 2.4 57899 31.6
   65+ 11 1.3 47 3.4 100 14.6 185 5.5 3 0.3 55080 30.0
Gender and education
Males 833   1215   993   3481   1019   165072  
   High 244 29.3 267 22.0 153 15.4 747 21.5 422 41.2 91384 55.4
   Low 589 70.7 948 78.0 840 84.6 2734 78.5 597 58.6 73688 44.6
Females 865   1360   683   3343   999   181114  
   high 167 19.3 214 15.7 76 11.1 514 15.4 498 49.8 95148 52.5
   low 698 80.7 1146 84.3 607 88.9 2829 84.6 501 50.2 85966 47.5
  1. The precise cut-off point we chose between 'high' and 'low level of education' is in fact a peculiarity of the German three-tier secondary school system, where pupils are assigned to one of three types of schools after 4 years of primary school based on their primary school teachers' recommendations: the Gymnasium, which takes another 9 years of school (13 in all), and prepares for academic studies, the Hauptschule, which takes another 5 or 6 years (9 or 10 in all), and prepares for an apprenticeship for professions which might tentatively be categorised as blue-collar jobs, and, finally, the Realschule, which, in a manner of speaking, takes the middle ground: it always lasts for another 6 years (10 in all) and even though it is not intended to prepare for academic studies either, the professions it prepares for can be tentatively categorised as white-collar jobs. An important difference is that the Realschule curriculum includes two foreign languages, as opposed to only one in the Hauptschule. We defined a Realschule degree, regardless of further education, as a high level of education. If a respondent had no degree or 'only' a Hauptschule degree, (s)he was categorised as having a low level of education but if (s)he completed later vocational training advanced enough to be qualified to formally train apprentices her-/himself (Meister/Techniker(in) etc.) it was categorised as high level of education.