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Table 2 Antenatal, postnatal and delivery care, by cluster socioeconomic quartile group, for women who gave birth in urban slum communities under surveillance, Mumbai 2005–6

From: Inequalities in maternity care and newborn outcomes: one-year surveillance of births in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai

    Quartile group  
  All (%) 1st (%) 2nd (%) 3rd (%) 4th (%) OR (95% CI) Least poor: poorest (95% CI)
Antenatal care               
Had any antenatal care 4828 (92) 1135 (87) 1177 (90) 1249 (95) 1267 (97) 1.65 (1.47–1.85) 4.60 (3.05–6.94)
3 or more visits n = 4828 4531 (86) 1011 (77) 1081 (83) 1197 (91) 1242 (95) 1.72 (1.57–1.89) 4.94 (3.54–6.89)
Site of most antenatal care in Mumbai n = 4521               
   Public sector 2075 (46) 609 (57) 565 (51) 518 (45) 382 (32) 0.75 (0.70–0.79) 0.38 (0.30–0.47)
   Private sector 2447 (54) 453 (43) 540 (49) 643 (55) 811 (68)     
Had ultrasonography 4227 (88) 876 (77) 1006 (85) 1136 (91) 1209 (95) 1.69 (1.53–1.86) 5.00 (3.51–7.14)
Had tetanus toxoid 4632 (96) 1079 (95) 1121 (95) 1193 (95) 1239 (98) 1.19 (1.02–1.38) 2.10 (1.25–3.53)
Took iron tablets 4251 (81) 959 (73) 1016 (78) 1104 (84) 1172 (89) 1.40 (1.30–1.51) 3.00 (2.31–3.90)
Postnatal care               
Had a postnatal check 3438 (65.6) 740 (56.5) 819 (62.7) 894 (68.1) 985 (75.2) 1.26 (1.18–1.34) 2.13 (1.70–2.67)
   Site of postnatal check in Mumbai n = 3101               
Public sector 1825 (59) 508 (76) 469 (63) 459 (57) 389 (44) 0.65 (0.60–0.70) 0.26 (0.20–0.34)
Private sector 1276 (41) 161 (24) 272 (37) 347 (43) 496 (56)     
Delivery in Mumbai n = 4293               
   Home 480 (11) 262 (24) 141 (13) 49 (5) 28 (3) 0.54 (0.48–0.62) 0.17 (0.10–0.27)
   Institutional               
   Public sector 2335 (54) 606 (57) 619 (59) 626 (58) 484 (44) 0.66 (0.61–0.71) 0.27 (0.21–0.35)
   Private sector 1478 (34) 200 (19) 293 (28) 397 (37) 588 (53)     
Caesarean section 565 (15) 100 (12) 117 (13) 152 (15) 196 (18) 1.18 (1.08–1.28) 1.58 (1.21–2.05)
Infant sex n = 5131               
   Female 2406 (47) 601 (47) 683 (54) 667 (52) 688 (53)     
   Male 2725 (53) 687 (53) 587 (46) 614 (48) 604 (47) 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 1.00 (0.85–1.16)
Low birth weight (<2500 g) n = 4343 1024 (24) 231 (26) 248 (24) 305 (26) 240 (19) 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.70 (0.57–0.87)
Infant had BCG immunization 4619 (90) 1054 (82) 1135 (89) 1204 (94) 1226 (95) 1.48 (1.33–1.64) 2.89 (2.02–4.14)
All 5238 (100) 1309 (100) 1308 (100) 1312 (100) 1309 (100)     
  1. OR: odds ratio adjusted for clustering with random effects logistic regression, with socioeconomic quartile group as an ordered independent variable.
  2. Least poor:poorest: odds ratio adjusted for clustering with random effects logistic regression, with a binary variable representing the 1st and 4th socioeconomic quartiles as the independent variable.