Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Cumulative OR with 95% CI for self-rated health (1 = best health and 5 = poorest health) by socioeconomic, behaviour factors and longstanding illness among women in Finland

From: Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland

  Model I age-adjusteda Model II + SEP adjustedb,c Model III + behavior risk factorsb,d Model IV + chronic diseasesb,e
Education pf < 0.001 pf <0.001 pf <0.001 pf <0.001
<10 yrs 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
10–12 yrs 0.69# [0.46–1.02] 0.78 [0.52–1.16] 0.83 [0.56–1.24] 0.87 [0.58–1.30]
13–15 yrs 0.52** [0.36–0.76] 0.60** [0.41–0.88] 0.69# [0.47–1.01] 0.77 [0.52–1.14]
16+ yrs 0.35*** [0.23–0.52] 0.40*** [0.27–0.60] 0.47*** [0.31–0.72] 0.51** [0.34–0.77]
Personal income pf <0.001 pf <0.01 pf <0.01 pf <0.01
Lowest quartile 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd quartile 0.61** [0.46–0.81] 0.68** [0.51–0.89] 0.71* [0.53–0.94] 0.75# [0.56–1.00]
3rd quartile 0.47*** [0.35–0.62] 0.58** [0.43–0.79] 0.60** [0.44–0.82] 0.63** [0.46–0.86]
Highest quartile 0.51*** [0.38–0.68] 0.74# [0.53–1.02] 0.79 [0.57–1.10] 0.85 [0.61–1.17]
Employment pf <0.001 pf ns pf ns pf ns
Employed 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Student 1.31# [0.96–1.78] 1.19 [0.85–1.67] 1.26 [0.90–1.77] 1.20 [0.86–1.69]
Unemployed 2.10*** [1.50–2.92] 1.58* [1.08–2.31] 1.53* [1.05–2.24] 1.31 [0.90–1.90]
Housewives 1.40* [1.01–1.92] 1.21 [0.86–1.71] 1.24 [0.88–1.75] 1.13 [0.78–1.63]
Family structure pf <0.10 pf ns pf ns pf <0.05
Child & partner 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Only partner 1.04 [0.81–1.34] 1.12 [0.85–1.47] 1.13 [0.86–1.48] 1.17 [0.89–1.53]
No children no partner 0.95 [0.71–1.26] 0.91 [0.67–1.24] 0.84 [0.62–1.15] 0.80 [0.58–1.10]
Only children 1.50* [1.08–2.09] 1.24 [0.89–1.73] 1.26 [0.89–1.76] 1.29 [0.90–1.84]
Smoking pf <0.001   pf <0.01 pf <0.001
Never 1.00   1.00 1.00
In past 1.05 [0.81–1.36]   0.92 [0.70–1.21] 0.95 [0.72–1.25]
Occasional 0.61* [0.38–0.99]   0.56* [0.34–0.92] 0.50** [0.30–0.84]
Current 1.60*** [1.29–1.98]   1.29* [1.02–1.62] 1.32* [1.04–1.67]
BMI pf <0.001   pf <0.001 pf <0.001
Under 20 1.27# [0.97–1.67]   1.19 [0.90–1.57] 1.21 [0.92–1.58]
20–24.9 1.00   1.00 1.00
25–29.9 1.40** [1.13–1.75]   1.34* [1.07–1.68] 1.34* [1.06–1.70]
30+ 3.02*** [2.28–4.02]   2.85*** [2.13–3.81] 2.36*** [1.75–3.18]
Mental illness pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 10.4*** [5.86–19.15]    10.90*** [5.41–21.96]
Trauma & musculoskeletal pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 4.36*** [3.26–5.83]    4.57*** [3.34–6.25]
Cardiovascular illness pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 3.76*** [2.17–6.52]    3.02*** [1.72–5.31]
Other diseases pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 1.82*** [1.44–2.30]    2.59*** [1.98–3.39]
  1. aModel I SRH = age + one of the explanatory variables (education, personal income, employment status, family structure, BMI, smoking, chronic diseases).
  2. bElaboration analysis by adding a group of explanatory variables in the model allows one to assess the mediation effect of the group of new variables.
  3. cModel II SRH = age + education + personal income + employment status + family structure (SEP variables).
  4. dModel III SRH = age + SEP variables + BMI + smoking.
  5. eModel IV SRH = age + SEP variables + behaviour variables + chronic diseases.
  6. fWald test for significance of the cumulative OR difference between the categories of the variable.
  7. #p < 0.1; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ns not significant.
  8. SEP = socioeconomic position.