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Table 4 Cumulative OR with 95% CI for self-rated health (1 = best health and 5 = poorest health) by socioeconomic, behaviour factors and longstanding illness among women in Estoniaa

From: Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland

  Model I age-adjustedb,c Model II + SEP adjustedc,d Model III + behavior risk factorsc,e Model IV + chronic diseasesc,f
Education pg < 0.001 pg <0.05 pg ns pg ns
< 11 yrs 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
11–13 0.58* [0.39–0.88] 0.62* [0.41–0.94] 0.69# [0.46–1.05] 0.77 [0.49–1.19]
14–16 0.45*** [0.29–0.68] 0.53** [0.35–0.81] 0.62* [0.41–0.96] 0.70 [0.44–1.11]
17+ 0.38*** [0.24–0.61] 0.52** [0.32–0.84] 0.65# [0.40–1.08] 0.73 [0.43–1.22]
Personal income pg <0.001 pg < 0.001 pg <0.001 pg < 0.01
Lowest quartile 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd quartile 0.90 [0.71–1.15] 0.91 [0.71–1.16] 0.89 [0.69–1.14] 0.91 [0.70–1.18]
3rd quartile 0.69** [0.53–0.90] 0.69* [0.50–0.95] 0.68* [0.49–0.93] 0.65** [0.47–0.90]
Highest quartile 0.50*** [0.39–0.65] 0.53*** [0.39–0.73] 0.52*** [0.38–0.71] 0.58** [0.42–0.79]
Employment pg <0.05 pg ns pg ns pg ns
Employed 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Student 1.04 [0.81–1.33] 0.89 [0.67–1.19] 0.91 [0.69–1.21] 0.82 [0.61–1.10]
Unemployed 1.84** [1.22–2.78] 1.18 [0.76–1.82] 1.16 [0.74–1.80] 1.31 [0.83–2.07]
Housewives 1.07 [0.82–1.38] 0.84 [0.62–1.14] 0.83 [0.62–1.13] 0.78 [0.58–1.06]
Family structure pg <0.05 pg <0.05 pg <0.10 pg ns
Child & partner 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Only partner 1.02 [0.81–1.30] 1.10 [0.86–1.41] 1.10 [0.86–1.41] 1.00 [0.78–1.28]
No children no partner 1.00 [0.78–1.27] 1.02 [0.78–1.33] 1.06 [0.81–1.38] 1.06 [0.81–1.40]
Only children 1.47** [1.13–1.90] 1.46** [1.12–1.90] 1.45** [1.11–1.89] 1.35* [1.02–1.78]
Smoking pg <0.001   pg <0.001 pg < 0.01
Never 1.00   1.00 1.00
In past 1.27* [1.01–1.58]   1.29* [1.03–1.62] 1.22# [0.97–1.54]
Occasional 1.32# [0.9–1.81]   1.25 [0.91–1.72] 1.21 [0.88–1.66]
Current 1.75*** [1.41–2.17]   1.58*** [1.26–1.98] 1.51*** [1.20–1.90]
BMI pg <0.001   pg < 0.01 pg <0.05
Under 20 0.97 [0.79–1.19]   0.96 [0.78–1.18] 0.92 [0.75–1.13]
20–24.9 1.00   1.00 1.00
25–29.9 1.38* [1.08–1.76]   1.33* [1.04–1.69] 1.36* [1.07–1.75]
30+ 1.90*** [1.34–2.71]   1.69** [1.18–2.43] 1.42# [0.96–2.09]
Mental illness pg <0.001    pg <0.001
Yes vs. no 4.48*** [2.38–8.41]    7.55*** [3.61–15.78]
Trauma & musculoskeletal illness pg <0.001    pg <0.001
Yes vs. no 3.64*** [2.67–4.98]    4.90*** [3.46–6.94]
Cardiovascular illness pg <0.001    pg <0.001
Yes vs. no 4.02*** [2.73–5.93]    4.86*** [3.21–7.38]
Other diseases pg <0.001    pg <0.001
Yes vs. no 4.09*** [3.24–5.16]    5.53*** [4.28–7.16]
Language Russian vs. Estonian pg < 0.001 pg < 0.001 pg < 0.001 pg <0.001
  2.51*** [2.05–3.07] 2.12*** [1.72–2.61] 2.05 [1.66–2.53] 1.92 [1.55–2.38]
  1. SEP = socioeconomic position; BMI = body mass index.
  2. aAll the associations were adjusted for language Russian vs. Estonian.
  3. bModel I SRH = age + one of the explanatory variables (education, personal income, employment status, family structure, BMI, smoking, chronic diseases).
  4. cElaboration analysis by adding a group of explanatory variables in the model allows one to assess the mediation effect of the group of new variables.
  5. dModel II SRH = age + education + personal income + employment status + family structure (SEP variables).
  6. eModel III SRH = age + SEP variables + BMI + smoking.
  7. fModel IV SRH = age + SEP variables + behaviour variables + chronic diseases.
  8. gWald test for significance of the cumulative OR difference between the categories of the variable.
  9. #p < 0.1; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ns not significant.