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Table 2 Characteristics of 2008 SCBRFS Participants

From: Healthcare access and mammography screening in Michigan: a multilevel cross-sectional study

Characteristic White (N = 836) Black (N = 327) P-Value
Age    
   50-60 52.74 55.99 0.32
   61-74 47.26 44.01  
Income ($)    
   < 35,000 31.86 40.98 < 0.001
   35,000-74,999 32.37 23.83  
   > 75,000 17.81 9.53  
   Missing 17.98 25.66  
Employment    
   Employed 47.38 36.13 < 0.001
   Unemployed 18.07 15.31  
   Retired/Unable 34.55 47.88  
Education    
   Less than High School 41.05 40.86 0.48
   Some College 34.82 36.28  
   College plus 24.01 22.28  
Marital Status    
   Single 2.46 13.40 < 0.001
   Married 77.56 31.16  
   Divorced/Separated 11.79 29.00  
   Widowed 8.10 25.46  
Usual Source of Care    
   Yes 90.28 95.47 0.001
   No 9.69 3.99  
Usual Healthcare Provider    
   Yes 91.35 91.42 0.24
   No 8.59 8.04  
Family History of Breast Cancer    
   Yes 18.68 16.38 0.35
   No 80.96 83.62  
Past Diagnosis of Breast Cancer    
   Yes 5.42 10.04 0.02
   No 94.21 89.72  
Health Insurance Status    
   Yes 92.85 92.33 0.09
   No 7.15 7.12  
Smoking    
   Yes 43.92 56.77 < 0.001
   No 56.08 42.77  
Facilities a    
   Low 37.48 79.66 < 0.001
   High 62.52 20.34  
Personnel a    
   Low 65.17 4.42 < 0.001
   High 34.83 95.58  
Concentrated Affluence b    
   Low 55.85 8.69 < 0.001
   High 44.15 91.31  
Concentrated Disadvantage c    
   Low 78.35 16.85 < 0.001
   High 21.65 83.15  
Concentrated Immigration d    
   Low 68.21 14.36 < 0.001
   High 31.79 85.64  
Percent Black    
   < 6% 49.15 0.73 < 0.001
   > = 6% 50.85 99.27  
Recent Mammography e    
   Yes 87.57 89.14 0.09
   No 8.68 9.52  
   Missing 3.76 1.34  
Recent CBE f    
   Yes 86.82 86.24 0.29
   No 11.25 10.32  
   Missing 1.93 3.44  
Follow-up Time g    
   < 2 weeks 26.69 25.12 0.01
   > = 2 weeks 11.16 5.86  
   No follow-up required 62.15 69.02  
  1. aPersonnel and Facilities, two measures of health care access were defined using principal components analysis on the count per 10,000 population of several variables by county: hospitals, mammography facilities, MDs, DOs and nurse practitioners
  2. bConcentrated affluence was based on PCA of county level proportion of individuals making over $100,000, proportion over 25 years with a college degree and the proportion of white collar workers
  3. cConcentrated disadvantage was based on PCA of county level proportion of persons in poverty, proportion of families with a female-headed household, proportion of households that are food stamp recipients, and proportion of unemployed
  4. dConcentrated immigration was based on PCA of the proportion of foreign born individuals and the proportion of non-English speaking individuals
  5. eRecent mammography defined as the receipt of a mammography test in the past 2 years
  6. fRecent CBE defined as the receipt of a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years
  7. gFollow-up time defined as the number of days before receipt of final results among women with an abnormal breast exam in the past 10 years