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  1. Low socioeconomic status deemed by income-based measures is a risk factor for depression. Material hardship is commonly used as a multidimensional socioeconomic indicator to identify the struggles that low-inc...

    Authors: Soo Hyun Kang, Selin Kim, Eun-Cheol Park and Sung-In Jang

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:202

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The evolving pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe threat to public health, and the workplace presents high risks in terms of spreading the disease. Few studies have focused on th...

    Authors: Kailu Wang, Eliza Lai Yi Wong, Kin Fai Ho, Annie Wai Ling Cheung, Emily Ying Yang Chan, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong and Eng Kiong Yeoh

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:200

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Gender-based discrimination remains a substantial barrier to health care access and HIV prevention among transgender women in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gender-bas...

    Authors: Beo Oliveira Leite, Danielle Souto de Medeiros, Laio Magno, Francisco Inácio Bastos, Carolina Coutinho, Ana Maria de Brito, Maria Socorro Cavalcante and Inês Dourado

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:199

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. In Korea, the universal health system offers coverage to all members of society. Despite this, it is unclear whether risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) varies depending on income. We evaluated t...

    Authors: Dong Jun Kim, Ji Won Yoo, Jong Wha Chang, Takashi Yamashita, Eun-Cheol Park, Kyu-Tae Han, Seung Ju Kim and Sun Jung Kim

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:151

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. The goal of this paper was to assess the quality of primary healthcare services at community health centres (CHCs) from the demand (patient) and supplier (healthcare service institution) angles.

    Authors: RuQing Liu, Leiyu Shi, YiFan Meng, Ning He, JingLan Wu, XinWen Yan and RuWei Hu

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:198

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Most estimates of visual impairment and blindness worldwide do not include data from specific minority groups as indigenous populations. We aimed to evaluate frequencies and causes of visual impairment and bli...

    Authors: Arthur Gustavo Fernandes, Monica Alves, Roberta Andrade e Nascimento, Natalia Yumi Valdrighi, Rafael Cunha de Almeida and Celso Takashi Nakano

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:197

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. Equity is one of three dimensions of universal health coverage (UHC). However, Iraq has had capital-focused health services and successive conflicts and political turmoil have hampered health services around t...

    Authors: Hiroko Taniguchi, Md Mizanur Rahman, Khin Thet Swe, Md Rashedul Islam, Md Shafiur Rahman, Nadia Parsell, Ashraf Hussain, Kenji Shibuya and Masahiro Hashizume

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:196

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. In India the number of registered deaths increased substantially in recent years, improving the potential of the civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system to be the primary source of mortality data...

    Authors: Jayanta Kumar Basu and Tim Adair

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:195

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Maternal mortality (MM) reflects one of the most striking global health inequalities. Global figures of MM fell significantly from 1990 to 2017. The reduction was largely due to a 70% fall in haemorrhages, and...

    Authors: José M. Belizán, Luz Gibbons and Gabriela Cormick

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:194

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  10. Research indicates the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, and discrimination inflamed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a type of social exclusion, could affect the well-being of the Chinese diaspo...

    Authors: Youli Chen, Zicong Wang, Weizhen Dong, Jia Huei Chen Xu, Sizhe Ji Wu, Xiangyang Zhang and Chun Chen

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:192

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. Few studies explored the relationship between the family doctor contract services (FDCS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with chronic diseases in rural China. This study aims to explo...

    Authors: Zhixian Li, Jie Li, Peipei Fu, Yan Chen, Zhengyue Jing, Yemin Yuan, Shijun Yang, Chen Yan, Wenjuan Li, Jie Li, Zhen Gui and Chengchao Zhou

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:191

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. Active transportation is a crucial sort of physical activity for developing sustainable environments and provides essential health benefits. This is particularly important in Latin American countries because t...

    Authors: Gerson Ferrari, Juan Guzmán-Habinger, Javiera L. Chávez, André O. Werneck, Danilo R. Silva, Irina Kovalskys, Georgina Gómez, Attilio Rigotti, Lilia Yadira Cortés, Martha Cecilia Yépez García, Rossina G. Pareja, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Clemens Drenowatz, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta…

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:190

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. In the past few years, increasing numbers of Indigenous doula collectives have been forming across Canada. Indigenous doulas provide continuous, culturally appropriate support to Indigenous women during pregna...

    Authors: Jaime Cidro, Caroline Doenmez, Stephanie Sinclair, Alexandra Nychuk, Larissa Wodtke and Ashley Hayward

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:189

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Information on socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity over time is sparse in low- to middle-income countries. In this study, we examined trends in physical activity educational inequalities in adults ...

    Authors: Gerson Ferrari, Pedro Toteff Dulgheroff, Rafael M. Claro, Leandro F. M. Rezende and Catarina Machado Azeredo

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:188

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Intersectionality is a widely adopted theoretical orientation in the field of women and gender studies. Intersectionality comes from the work of black feminist scholars and activists. Intersectionality argues ...

    Authors: Christine Kelly, Danielle Kasperavicius, Diane Duncan, Cole Etherington, Lora Giangregorio, Justin Presseau, Kathryn M. Sibley and Sharon Straus

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:187

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  16. Although evidence suggest that many slum dwellers in low- and middle-income countries have the most difficulty accessing family planning (FP) services, there are limited workable interventions/models for reach...

    Authors: John Kuumuori Ganle, Leonard Baatiema, Paul Ayamah, Charlotte Abra Esime Ofori, Edward Kwabena Ameyaw, Abdul-Aziz Seidu and Augustine Ankomah

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:186

    Content type: Systematic review

    Published on:

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors have been attributed to both structural and individual factors, but untangling the complex, dynamic pathways through which these factors influence inequalities re...

    Authors: Andrea L. Mudd, Frank J. van Lenthe, Sanne E. Verra, Michèlle Bal and Carlijn B. M. Kamphuis

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:184

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. The determinants of access to immunizers are still poorly understood, leading to questions about which criteria were considered in this distribution. Given the above, the present study aimed to analyze the det...

    Authors: Brigitte Renata Bezerra de Oliveira, Ana Iza Gomes da Penha Sobral, Marcelo Luiz Monteiro Marinho, Marcos Felipe Falcão Sobral, André de Souza Melo and Gisleia Benini Duarte

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:183

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Although Ethiopia has already achieved a remarkable progress in reducing under-five mortality in the last decades, undernutrition among children is still a common problem in this country. Socioeconomic inequal...

    Authors: Mengesha Yayo Negasi

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:182

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. The cultural determinants of health centre an Indigenous definition of health, and have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. There is growing evidence for the importance of the cultural deter...

    Authors: Ebony Verbunt, Joanne Luke, Yin Paradies, Muriel Bamblett, Connie Salamone, Amanda Jones and Margaret Kelaher

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:181

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  21. Ethiopia has experienced great improvements in life expectancy (LE) at birth over the last three decades. Despite consistent increases in LE for both males and females in Ethiopia, the country has simultaneous...

    Authors: Myunggu Jung, Gizachew Balew Jembere, Young Su Park, William Muhwava, Yeohee Choi, Youngtae Cho and Woorim Ko

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:180

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. The accelerated aging trend brought great chronic diseases burdens. Disabled Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) is a novel way to measure the chronic diseases burden. This study aimed to explore the cohort, socioecon...

    Authors: Gangming Zhang, Fang Tang, Jing Liang and Peigang Wang

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:179

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Life expectancy in Australia is amongst the highest globally, but national estimates mask within-country inequalities. To monitor socioeconomic inequalities in health, many high-income countries routinely repo...

    Authors: J Welsh, K Bishop, H Booth, D Butler, M Gourley, HD Law, E Banks, V Canudas-Romo and RJ Korda

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:178

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. The feminist women’s health movement empowered women’s knowledge regarding their health and battled against paternalistic and oppressive practices within healthcare systems. Gender Medicine (GM) is a new disci...

    Authors: Ayelet Shai, Shahar Koffler and Yael Hashiloni-Dolev

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:177

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  25. Conventional indicators used to access the nutritional status of children tend to underestimate the overall undernutrition in the presence of multiple anthropometric failures. Further, factors contributing to ...

    Authors: Akash Porwal, Rajib Acharya, Sana Ashraf, Praween Agarwal, Sowmya Ramesh, Nizamuddin Khan, Avina Sarna and Robert Johnston

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:176

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The Ministry of Public Health of Thailand established universal health coverage (UHC) in 2002, which also included national-level screening for cervical cancer in 2005. This study examined the changes in morta...

    Authors: Patumrat Sripan, Imjai Chitapanarux, Ekkasit Tharavichitkul, Pooriwat Muangwong, Donsuk Pongnikorn, Narate Waisri, Chirapong Hanpragopsuk, Puttachart Maneesai, Panrada Tansiri, Malisa Poungsombat and Varunee Khamsan

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:175

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Breastfeeding rates in Mexico are far from World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations with 28.8% of Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) under 6 months of age, according to the 2018 National Health and Nutrition...

    Authors: Diana Bueno-Gutiérrez, Edgar Uriel Romero Castillo and Angélica Emili Hernández Mondragón

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:173

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Socioeconomic inequalities could mitigate the impact of social and behavior change (SBC) interventions aimed at improving positive ideation towards the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. This study explores ...

    Authors: Dele Abegunde, Paul Hutchinson, Udochisom Anaba, Foyeke Oyedokun-Adebagbo, Emily White Johansson, Bamikale Feyisetan and Emma Mtiro

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:172

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. In hospitals globally, patient centred communication is difficult to practice, and interpreters are underused. Low uptake of interpreters is commonly attributed to limited interpreter availability, time constr...

    Authors: Vicki Kerrigan, Stuart Yiwarr McGrath, Sandawana William Majoni, Michelle Walker, Mandy Ahmat, Bilawara Lee, Alan Cass, Marita Hefler and Anna P. Ralph

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. In 2008, Ecuador started a national health reform based on the principles of Alma Ata to achieve Universal Health Coverage. While coverage indicators have increased, a systematic assessment of the impact of th...

    Authors: Sergio E Flores Jimenez and Miguel San Sebastián

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:169

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Food deserts are neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy food, whereas food swamps are neighborhoods where unhealthy food options prevail over healthy ones. The main aims of the current study are to ...

    Authors: Olivia Souza Honório, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Lucia Helena Almeida Gratão, Luana Lara Rocha, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro, Daniela Silva Canella, Paula Martins Horta and Larissa Loures Mendes

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:168

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Population segmentation and risk stratification are important strategies for allocating resources in public health, health care and social care. Social exclusion, which is defined as the cumulation of disadvan...

    Authors: Addi P. L. van Bergen, Annelies van Loon, Stella J. M. Hoff, Judith R. L. M. Wolf and Albert M. van Hemert

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:167

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered the ways in which disabled people are made more vulnerable due to structural inequalities. These vulnerabilities are the result of the interaction between individual and str...

    Authors: David Colon-Cabrera, Shivika Sharma, Narelle Warren and Dikaios Sakellariou

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:166

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. In some areas of the world, breast milk is seen as a potential source of child diarrhoea. While this belief has been explored in African and Southeast Asian countries, it remains vastly understudied in Latin A...

    Authors: Néstor Nuño Martínez, Jordyn Wallenborn, Daniel Mäusezahl, Stella M. Hartinger and Joan Muela Ribera

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. In this paper we explore some of the ways systemic racism operates and is maintained within our health and social services. We look at a very specific context, that of Nunavik Quebec, land and home to 13,000 Nuna...

    Authors: Sarah Louise Fraser, Dominique Gaulin and William Daibhid Fraser

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:164

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  36. The capacity for health comparisons, including the accurate comparison of indicators, is necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of well-being in places where people live. An important issue is the assessment...

    Authors: Natalia Shartova, Vladimir Tikunov and Olga Chereshnya

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Distribution of physicians is a key component of access to health care. Although there is extensive research on urban-rural disparities in physician distribution, limited attention has been directed to the het...

    Authors: Xuexin Yu, Wei Zhang and Jersey Liang

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:162

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have profound mental health impact, including in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) region. Some populations might be at higher risk of experiencing negative ment...

    Authors: Jill K. Murphy, Amna Khan, Qiumeng Sun, Harry Minas, Simon Hatcher, Chee H. Ng, Mellissa Withers, Andrew Greenshaw, Erin E. Michalak, Promit Ananyo Chakraborty, Karen Sharmini Sandanasamy, Nurashikin Ibrahim, Arun Ravindran, Jun Chen, Vu Cong Nguyen and Raymond W. Lam

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:161

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. Appropriate choice of research design is essential to rightly understand the research problem and derive optimal solutions. The Comorbidity Action in the North project sought to better meet the needs of local ...

    Authors: Hepsibah Sharmil, Janet Kelly, Margaret Bowden, Cherrie Galletly, Imelda Cairney, Coral Wilson, Lisa Hahn, Dennis Liu, Paul Elliot, Joanne Else, Trevor Warrior, Trevor Wanganeen, Robert Taylor, Frank Wanganeen, Jodus Madrid, Lisa Warner…

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:160

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Health policy interventions were expected to improve access to health care delivery, provide financial risk protection, besides reducing inequities that underlie geographic and socio-economic variation in popu...

    Authors: Sakthivel Selvaraj, Anup K. Karan, Wenhui Mao, Habib Hasan, Ipchita Bharali, Preeti Kumar, Osondu Ogbuoji and Chetana Chaudhuri

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:159

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition which demands that patients engage in self-management to achieve optimal glycemic control and avoid severe complications. Individuals who have diabetes and are experienc...

    Authors: Eshleen K. Grewal, Rachel B. Campbell, Gillian L. Booth, Kerry A. McBrien, Stephen W. Hwang, Patricia O’Campo and David J. T. Campbell

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:158

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. This study assesses the inclusion of disability in Nepal’s policy and guidance relevant to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in comparison to gender. We investigated ...

    Authors: Jane Wilbur, Nathaniel Scherer, Islay Mactaggart, Govind Shrestha, Thérèse Mahon, Belen Torondel, Shaffa Hameed and Hannah Kuper

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:157

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Nutritional inequality in India has been estimated typically using stunting, wasting and underweight separately which hide the overall magnitude and severity of undernutrition. We used the Composite Index of A...

    Authors: Sabu Ulahannan Kochupurackal, Yogish Channa Basappa, Sangeetha Joice Vazhamplackal and Prashanth N Srinivas

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:155

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Israel’s containment of the first wave of Covid-19 was relatively successful. Soon afterwards, however, in the summer months, a harsher pandemic wave developed, resulting in many more seriously ill and dead Is...

    Authors: Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli and Judith Chassida

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:154

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Poor diet is the leading preventable risk factor contributing to the burden of disease globally and in Australia, and is inequitably distributed. As the price of healthy foods is a perceived barrier to improve...

    Authors: Amanda Lee, Dori Patay, Lisa-Maree Herron, Ella Parnell Harrison and Meron Lewis

    Citation: International Journal for Equity in Health 2021 20:153

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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