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Table 2 Standardized unadjusted and adjusted coefficients (from the parallel mediation model) of associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and mediators, and between mediators and loneliness, including indirect effects of the different SES – mediator – loneliness paths

From: Pathways to loneliness: a mediation analysis investigating the social gradient of loneliness in persons with disabilities in Switzerland

SES - > Mediator Unadjusted Coefficient
(95% CI)
Adjusted Coefficient (95% CI) Mediator - > Loneliness Unadjusted Coefficient
(95% CI)
Adjusted Coefficient
(95% CI)
Unadjusted Indirect Effect
Std Estimate (95% Bootstrap CI)
Adjusted Indirect Effect Std Estimate (95% Bootstrap CI)
Mediators - Psychosocial resources
 SES - > emotional support 0.46 (0.31, 0.61) 0.71 (0.49, 1.00) emotional support - > loneliness −0.33 (− 0.40, − 0.27) − 0.25 (− 0.34, − 0.14) − 0.15 (− 0.21, − 0.10) −0.18 (− 0.29, − 0.09)
 SES - > tangible support 0.41 (0.28, 0.55) 0.56 (0.35, 0.82) tangible support - > loneliness − 0.26 (− 0.31, − 0.20) −0.01 (− 0.10, 0.09) − 0.10 (− 0.15, − 0.07) − 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.07)
 SES - > self-efficacy 0.63 (0.49, 0.80) 1.04 (0.75, 1.45) self-efficacy - > loneliness − 0.39 (− 0.47, − 0.32) −0.27 (− 0.34, − 0.19) −0.24 (− 0.33, − 0.17) −0.28 (− 0.43, − 0.19)
Mediators - Participation
 SES - > restrictions 0.71 (0.57, 0.89) 1.56 (1.13, 2.21) restrictions - > loneliness − 0.20 (− 0.26, − 0.15) −0.06 (− 0.14, 0.02) −0.14 (− 0.20, − 0.10) −0.10 (− 0.22, 0.04)
 SES - > frequency 0.75 (0.60, 0.94) 1.50 (1.08, 1.97) frequency - > loneliness −0.06 (− 0.13, 0.00) 0.04 (− 0.02, 0.12) − 0.04 (− 0.10, 0.00) 0.06 (− 0.04, 0.18)
Mediators – Functioning and health
 SES - > secondary conditions −0.82 (−1.03, − 0.62) −1.39 (− 1.96, − 0.99) secondary conditions - > loneliness 0.26 (0.20, 0.33) 0.10 (0.02, 0.17) −0.21 (− 0.30, − 0.14) −0.13 (− 0.24, − 0.02)
 SES - > functional independence 0.53 (0.39, 0.70) 1.20 (0.84, 1.70) functional independence - > loneliness −0.16 (− 0.22, − 0.10) 0.02 (− 0.06, 0.08) −0.09 (− 0.13, − 0.05) 0.02 (− 0.07, 0.12)
  1. Abbreviations: C confidence interval. Bold coefficients indicate significant associations with CIs not crossing 0 (p value < 0.05)