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Table 3 Results of difference-in-differences analysis showing the change in emergency admissions for respiratory conditions per 100,000 population in the intervention neighbourhoods following the declaration of an AQMA relative to the control neighbourhoods, stratified by income deprivation

From: Impact of local air quality management policies on emergency hospitalisations for respiratory conditions in the North West Coast region of England: a longitudinal controlled ecological study

  Model 1: Least deprived neighbourhoods Model 2: Middle deprivation Model 3: Most deprived neighbourhoods
Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI
Working age population unemployed (%) −12.7 [−44.35, 18.95] −35.7 [− 52.97, −18.43] −8.02 [−19.91, 3.87]
Population aged < 15 years (%) 15.84 [0.01, 31.67] 25.69 [13.10, 38.27] 32.83 [20.03, 45.64]
Population aged 65+ years (%) 15.15 [8.18, 22.13] 27.65 [20.33, 34.98] 38 [22.93, 53.08]
Years to/since intervention 38.45 [28.63, 48.28] 48.22 [40.41, 56.04] 45.26 [35.75, 54.76]
Period [post-intervention = 1; pre-intervention = 0] −33.64 [− 107.54, 40.26] 14.09 [−50.55, 78.73] 42.19 [−23.36, 107.74]
Group [intervention = 1; control = 0] −14.51 [− 136.30, 107.28] −51.92 [− 165.19, 61.35] 77.44 [− 39.15, 194.03]
DiD estimator: Period * Group 16.62 [−89.90, 123.13] −184.25 [− 300.80, − 67.70] −199.76 [−304.04, − 95.48]
  1. Models include random intercept for neighbourhood.
  2. Model 1 based on 19 intervention and 95 control neighbourhoods, 1482 observations.
  3. Model 2 based on 37 intervention and 185 control neighbourhoods, 2886 observations.
  4. Model 3 based on 52 intervention and 260 control neighbourhoods, 4056 observations.
  5. CI confidence interval; DiD Difference-in-Differences