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Table 2 Results of difference-in-differences analysis showing the change in emergency admissions for respiratory conditions per 100,000 population in the intervention neighbourhoods following the declaration of an AQMA relative to the control neighbourhoods

From: Impact of local air quality management policies on emergency hospitalisations for respiratory conditions in the North West Coast region of England: a longitudinal controlled ecological study

  Coefficient 95% CI p-value
Working age population unemployed (%) − 1.1 [− 10.21, 8.01] 0.812
Population aged < 15 years (%) 45.24 [36.76, 53.71] < .001
Population aged 65+ years (%) 13.61 [7.20, 20.03] < .001
Years to/since intervention 45.48 [40.04, 50.92] < .001
Period [post-intervention = 1; pre-intervention = 0] 23.32 [−17.67, 64.32] 0.265
Group [intervention = 1; control = 0] 82.27 [−19.79, 184.34] 0.114
DiD estimator: Period * Group −158.45 [−227.29, − 89.61] < .001
  1. Model based on equation shown in Supplementary file and includes random intercept for neighbourhood.
  2. Model based on 108 intervention and 540 control neighbourhoods, and 8424 observations.
  3. CI confidence interval; DiD Difference-in-Differences