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Table 5 Reasons for difficulties accessing health care services by visible minority immigrant status

From: Difficulties accessing health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada: examining the intersectionality between immigrant status and visible minority status

  Percentage
Overall NVMNB VMNB NVMI VMI
Getting a referral
 Percentage 18 (18, 19) 18 (17, 19) 21 (18, 25) 18 (15, 21) 21 (18, 24)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.24 (0.98, 1.57) 0.99 (0.81, 1.23) 1.22 (1.02, 1.46)*
Getting an appointment
 Percentage 69 (68, 70) 69 (68, 70) 67 (63, 72) 67 (64, 71) 68 (65, 71)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.92 (0.75, 1.13) 0.91 (0.77, 1.08) 0.93 (0.80, 1.09)
Contacting physicians/nurses for information
 Percentage 29 (28, 29) 27 (26, 28) 31 (27, 36) 29 (25, 32) 33 (30, 37)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.21 (0.99, 1.48) 1.07 (0.90, 1.28) 1.33 (1.15, 1.55)***
Waiting between booking and visit
 Percentage 32 (31, 33) 30 (29, 31) 34 (30, 39) 31 (27, 34) 40 (37, 43)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.20 (0.98, 1.48) 1.03 (0.87, 1.22) 1.55 (1.34, 1.80)***
Waited too long to get service
 Percentage 16 (15, 16) 14 (14, 15) 17 (14, 21) 13 (11, 16) 22 (19, 25)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.21 (0.93, 1.56) 0.90 (0.72, 1.14) 1.69 (1.41, 2.03)***
Not available at time required
 Percentage 46 (45, 47) 47 (46, 48) 49 (44, 53) 41 (38, 45) 43 (40, 47)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.06 (0.88, 1.29) 0.79 (0.67, 0.92)** 0.85 (0.74, 0.98)*
Refused for symptoms of COVID-19
 Percentage 3 (2, 3) 3 (2, 3) 3 (2, 7) 2 (1, 3) 3 (2, 4)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.58 (0.89, 2.80) 0.63 (0.38, 1.06) 1.06 (0.68, 1.67)
Transportation problems
 Percentage 7 (6, 8) 6 (6, 7) 8 (6, 10) 5 (4, 7) 11 (9, 14)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.24 (0.89, 1.72) 0.83 (0.59, 1.15) 1.81 (1.36, 2.40)***
Language problems
 Percentage 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 3) 1 (1, 2) 3 (2, 5)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.01 (0.41, 2.50) 0.66 (0.31, 1.43) 2.68 (1.67, 4.30)***
Cost
 Percentage 10 (9, 10) 9 (8, 10) 12 (10, 16) 6 (5, 9) 13 (10, 15)
 Odds ratio   1.00 1.44 (1.07, 1.95)* 0.68 (0.50, 0.93)* 1.43 (1.13, 1.81)**
Other
 Percentage 16 (15, 17) 16 (15, 17) 16 (13, 20) 15 (13, 18) 14 (12, 16)
 Odds ratio   1.00 0.98 (0.75, 1.28) 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 0.83 (0.68, 1.02)
Total 16,302 13,027 825 1160 1290
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; NVMNB non-visible minority native-born, VMNB visible minority native-born, NVMI non-visible minority immigrants, VMI visible minority immigrants