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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of difficulties accessing health care services

From: Difficulties accessing health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada: examining the intersectionality between immigrant status and visible minority status

  NES NEDT ARC DC MHC ESUC
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Visible minority immigrant status
 NVMNB 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 VMNB 0.96 (0.66, 1.40) 0.74 (0.57, 0.96)* 0.99 (0.77, 1.28) 0.69 (0.58, 0.83)*** 0.98 (0.75, 1.27) 1.12 (0.74, 1.69)
 NVMI 0.99 (0.74, 1.32) 1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 1.05 (0.85, 1.30) 0.92 (0.80, 1.06) 1.03 (0.80, 1.32) 0.87 (0.60, 1.25)
 VMI 0.55 (0.40, 0.75)*** 0.74 (0.61, 0.89)*** 0.56 (0.46, 0.68)*** 0.71 (0.62, 0.82)*** 0.77 (0.62, 0.96)* 1.46 (1.07, 1.98)*
Experience of discrimination
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.42 (1.18, 1.71)*** 1.50 (1.33, 1.70)*** 1.39 (1.22, 1.58)*** 1.41 (1.28, 1.56)*** 1.87 (1.63, 2.15)*** 1.72 (1.41, 2.09)***
Trust towards health care
 Great deal of trust 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Fair amount of trust 1.12 (0.89, 1.41) 1.36 (1.17, 1.58)*** 1.15 (0.98, 1.35) 1.06 (0.95, 1.18) 1.01 (0.83, 1.23) 1.20 (0.89, 1.63)
 Moderate amount trust 1.39 (1.08, 1.80)* 1.76 (1.49, 2.07)*** 1.21 (1.02, 1.45)* 1.23 (1.09, 1.38)** 1.15 (0.94, 1.42) 2.29 (1.68, 3.10)***
 Little amount of trust 1.95 (1.45, 2.63)*** 2.93 (2.38, 3.60)*** 1.67 (1.34, 2.07)*** 1.50 (1.29, 1.76)*** 1.90 (1.50, 2.42)*** 3.76 (2.67, 5.29)***
 No trust at all 2.73 (1.83, 4.08)*** 4.86 (3.61, 6.54)*** 1.72 (1.26, 2.34)*** 1.64 (1.28, 2.10)*** 2.33 (1.69, 3.23)*** 7.07 (4.76, 9.51)***
Level of education
 No university 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 University 1.01 (0.85, 1.20) 1.18 (1.05, 1.33)** 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) 1.12 (1.02, 1.22)* 0.85 (0.74, 0.98)* 1.05 (0.86, 1.28)
Sex
 Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 1.18 (0.99, 1.39) 1.27 (1.13, 1.43)*** 1.45 (1.28, 1.65)*** 1.08 (0.99, 1.17) 1.25 (1.08, 1.46)** 1.16 (0.94, 1.42)
Rural residence
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.13 (0.88, 1.44) 1.11 (0.92, 1.32) 1.25 (1.03, 1.52)** 1.23 (1.08, 1.41)** 1.30 (1.04, 1.61)* 1.04 (0.78, 1.38)
Age of respondents
 15–34 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 35–44 0.98 (0.75, 1.27) 1.02 (0.85, 1.23) 1.40 (1.18, 1.67)*** 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 0.73 (0.61, 0.87)*** 0.85 (0.64, 1.12)
 45+ 1.18 (0.94, 1.50) 1.05 (0.89, 1.23) 1.35 (1.15, 1.58)*** 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) 0.74 (0.64, 0.87)*** 1.03 (0.80, 1.33)
 Unknown 1.06 (0.66, 1.70) 1.03 (0.75, 1.40) 1.86 (1.35, 2.56)*** 1.13 (0.92, 1.39) 1.24 (0.91, 1.68) 1.24 (0.79, 1.94)
Marital status
 Married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Not married 0.94 (0.75, 1.16) 0.96 (0.82, 1.12) 0.96 (0.81, 1.13) 0.97 (0.86, 1.09) 1.18 (1.01, 1.39)* 0.98 (0.77, 1.24)
LGBTQ2
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.93 (0.72, 1.21) 1.09 (0.91, 1.31) 1.11 (0.92, 1.33) 1.17 (1.02, 1.33)* 1.33 (1.12, 1.57)** 1.10 (0.83, 1.45)
Indigenous identity
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.05 (0.73, 1.51) 1.02 (0.77, 1.35) 0.92 (0.67, 1.26) 0.96 (0.77, 1.19) 1.12 (0.86, 1.47) 1.81 (1.26, 2.59)**
Living arrangement
 Living alone 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Multiple persons, no children 1.02 (0.77, 1.34) 1.21 (0.99, 1.48) 1.00 (0.82, 1.22) 1.19 (1.03, 1.37)* 1.13 (0.92, 1.38) 1.08 (0.78, 1.49)
 Multiple persons, with children 1.15 (0.86, 1.53) 1.17 (0.95, 1.44) 1.17 (0.94, 1.44) 1.20 (1.03, 1.39)* 1.49 (1.20, 1.84)*** 1.33 (0.96, 1.86)
Sense of belonging
 Very strong 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Somewhat strong 1.43 (1.19, 1.73)*** 1.18 (1.03, 1.34)* 1.24 (1.09, 1.43)** 1.11 (1.01, 1.22)* 1.12 (0.95, 1.33) 1.06 (0.84, 1.33)
 Somewhat weak 1.45 (1.15, 1.83)** 1.31 (1.12, 1.53)*** 1.57 (1.32, 1.85)*** 1.27 (1.13, 1.43)*** 1.40 (1.16, 1.69)*** 1.14 (0.88, 1.49)
 Very weak 1.64 (1.20, 2.25)** 1.46 (1.16, 1.84)*** 1.43 (1.13, 1.80)** 1.33 (1.12, 1.58)** 1.76 (1.39, 2.23)*** 1.19 (0.85, 1.67)
Any health problem
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 3.23 (2.70, 3.86)*** 2.21 (1.96, 2.48)*** 2.18 (1.94, 2.46)*** 1.54 (1.42, 1.67)*** 2.85 (2.42, 3.35)*** 2.03 (1.64, 2.50)***
 Wald X2 371.83*** 652.66*** 437.49*** 400.77*** 598.60*** 391.62***
  1. NES non-emergency surgery, NEDT non-emergency diagnostic test, DC dental care, MHC mental health care, ESUC emergency service/urgent care; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (in parentheses)