Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary statistics of studied mothers (n = 600) and Congenital heart diseases distribution

From: Socioeconomic inequality in congenital heart diseases in Iran

Variable N (%) Congenital heart diseases distribution (n = 200)
N (%) P-valuea
Social variable
Socio-economic status Poorest 120 (20) 98 (16.33) < 0.001
Poorer 120 (20) 68 (11.33)
Middle 138 (23) 20 (3.33)
Richer 109 (18.17) 13 (2.17)
Richest 113 (18.83) 1 (0.17)
Mother’s education Illiterate 82 (13.67) 64 (10.67) < 0.001
Primary school 111 (18.50) 49 (8.17)
Middle school 144 (24.00) 36 (6.00)
High school 143 (23.83) 38 (6.33)
University 120 (20.00) 13 (2.17)
Father’s education Illiterate 33 (5.50) 20 (3.33) < 0.001
Primary school 51 (8.50) 36 (6.00)
Middle school 99 (16.50) 40 (6.67)
High school 173 (28.83) 55 (9.17)
University 244 (40.67) 49 (8.17)
Mother’s occupation Housewife 368 (61.33) 163 (27.17) < 0.001
Clerical jobs 137 (22.83) 14 (2.33)
Non-clerical jobs 95 (15.83) 23 (3.83)
Father’s occupation Clerical jobs 226 (37.67) 37 (6.17) < 0.001
Non-clerical jobs 333 (55.50) 152 (25.33)
Unemployed 41 (6.83) 11 (1.83)
Nationality Iranian 576 (96.00) 187 (31.17) 0.027
Non-Iranian 24 (4.00) 13 (2.17)
Place of residence Urban 494 (82.33) 127 (21.17) < 0.001
Rural 106 (17.67) 73 (12.17)
Number of children One child 202 (33.67) 78 (13.00) 0.043
Two children 261 (43.50) 87 (14.50)
> = 3 children 137 (22.83) 35 (5.83)
History of family marriage Yes 144 (24.00) 83 (13.83) < 0.001
No 456 (76.00) 117 (19.50)
Medical/biological variables
Mother’s age at delivery time ≤17 (yr) 10 (1.67) 10 (1.67) < 0.001
18–28 (yr) 202 (33.67) 89 (14.83)
29–39 (yr) 309 (51.50) 82 (13.67)
> = 40 (yr) 79 (13.17) 19 (13.17)
Father’s age 17–25 (yr) 46 (7.67) 33 (5.50) < 0.001
26–30 (yr) 105 (17.50) 37 (6.17)
31–35 (yr) 135 (22.50) 59 (9.83)
36–40 (yr) 171 (28.50) 33 (5.50)
> 41 (yr) 143 (23.83) 38 (6.33)
Parity number 1 171 (28.50) 55 (9.17) 0.431
2 263 (43.83) 83 (13.83)
> = 3 166 (27.67) 62 (10.33)
Pregnancy care Have 478 (79.67) 101 (16.83) < 0.001
Not have 122 (20.33) 99 (16.50)
History of abortion Yes 140 (23.33) 114 (19.00) < 0.001
No 460 (76.67) 140 (23.33)
Chronic disease Have 195 (32.50) 119 (33.33) < 0.001
Not have 405 (67.50) 81 (13.50)
Using folic acid Yes 482 (80.33) 101 (16.83) < 0.001
No 118 (19.67) 99 (16.50)
Life style variable
Physical activity Enough 159 (67.37) 103 (43.64) < 0.001
Not enough 77 (32.63) 71 (30.08)
Using alcohol Yes 122 (20.33) 97 (16.17) < 0.001
No 478 (79.67) 103 (17.17)
Smoking Yes 111 (18.50) 92 (15.33) < 0.001
No 489 (81.50) 108 (18.00)
  1. a Chi-square test
  2. Note: Since the parity number was not statistically significant, this variable was excluded in decomposition model