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Table 1 Theoretical framework for assessing equity in active transport planning – adapted from Lee et al. [32]

From: How equitable are the distributions of the physical activity and accessibility benefits of bicycle infrastructure?

Models of distributive justice Equality rule • Benefits and costs of active transport should be the same for everyone.
Equity rule • Benefits and costs of active transport should be distributed proportionally, e.g., provide infrastructure where demand is highest.
Needs rule • The greatest benefit should be provided to the most disadvantaged population groups or geographical areas.
Approaches to identifying inequities in measured benefits or costs of active transport. Social • Assesses how active transport benefits or costs are distributed between different population groups.
• Focus is typically on disadvantaged population groups, e.g., low income, indigenous, females.
• Disadvantaged population groups sometimes have the most to gain from active transport policies, due to lower levels of physical activity, motor vehicle ownership and access to public transport.
Spatial • Assesses how active transport benefits or costs are distributed between different geographical areas (e.g., neighbourhoods).
Modal • Assesses whether users of a given mode of transport are better/worse off than others, or disproportionately affected by a transport policy or project, e.g., pedestrians having longer average waiting times at signal-controlled intersections.
Procedural • Assesses the fairness of decision making, e.g., whether disadvantaged groups/areas/modes are considered in, or disproportionately affected by, strategies, plans, designs, etc.
Measures of the benefits and costs of active transport. Benefits • Availability or accessibility of active transport infrastructure.
• Accessibility to employment, education, public transport stops, supermarkets and other activity destinations.
• Active transport infrastructure quality, e.g., kerb ramps and pavement quality.
• Physical activity associated with active transport.
Costs • Exposure to air pollution.
• Risk of being killed/injured by a motor vehicle driver.