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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of the total, urban and rural older residents

From: Does social capital interact with economic hardships in influencing older adults’ health? A study from China

  Total (N = 3535) Urban (N = 1712) Rural (N = 1823)
SRH in 2018 (bad, %)a 30.4 25.7 34.9
SRH in 2016 (bad, %)b 28.6 24 30.2
CESD in 2018 (≥ 9, %)c 25.3 20 32.9
CESD in 2016 (≥ 9, %)d 22.7 17.5 27.6
Age (M/SD)e 72.89/5.087 73.3/5.421 72.52/4.723
Gender (male, %)f 51.7 49.8 53.5
Education(%)g
 No formal education 48.8 38.6 58.3
 Primary school 28.6 27.9 29.2
 Middle school 14.5 19.6 9.7
 High school 5.5 8.9 2.2
 College or higher 2.7 5 0.5
Marital status (%)h
 Married/cohabit 73.8 75.2 72.5
 Divorced 1.1 1.1 1.1
 Widowed 24.2 23.3 25.1
 Single 0.9 0.5 1.3
Smoking in the past month (%)i
 Yes 26.3 22.7 29.7
Drinking alcohol for at least 3 times a week (%)
 Yes 17.7 17.6 17.7
Family size (%)j
 1 8.7 8.3 9.1
 2 36.4 38.8 34.2
 3 11.1 12.4 9.8
 4 10.6 10.2 11
 5 14.7 15.7 13.7
 6 +  18.5 14.5 22.3
Economic hardships (yes, %)k 15.5 7.7 22.8
Neighborhood cohesion (low, %)l 39.1 42 36.4
Bridging trust (low, %) 40.5 42.1 38.9
Bonding trust (low, %) 38 37.9 38.2
Social participation (low, %)m 74 64.7 82.8
  1. Statistics in this table were calculated based on complete data
  2. aχ2(1,N = 1) = 35.93, P < .001; bχ2(1,N = 1) = 34.04, P < .001; cχ2(1,N = 1) = 48.12, P < .001; dχ2(1,N = 1) = 48.09, P < .001; et(3533) = 35.93, P < .001; fχ2(1,N = 1) = 4.88, P = .029; gχ2(1,N = 4) = 269.829, P < .001; hχ2(1,N = 3) = 9.06, P = .028; iχ2(1,N = 1) = 21.75, P < .001; jχ2(1,N = 5) = 43.41, P < .001; kχ2(1,N = 1) = 152.52, P < .001; lχ2(1,N = 1) = 10.963, P = .001; mχ2(1,N = 1) = 139.978, P < .001