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Table 2 Observed utility values of EQ-5D-3L of chronic patients by contracting status and household income in rural Shandong, China, 2018

From: Family doctor contract services and health-related quality of life among patients with chronic diseases in rural China: what is the role of socioeconomic status?

Characteristics Mean ± SD a EQ-5D-3L (%) b
Mo SC UA PD AD
Total 0.844 ± 0.177 24.9 11.9 24.5 52.5 22.3
Contracting status c
 No 0.831 ± 0.181 28.1 13.9 27.6 54.7 24.3
 Yes 0.875 ± 0.141*** 17.2 7.0 16.9 47.3 17.5
Household income
Q1
  No 0.792 ± 0.195 34.8 19.7 35.3 61.9 31.6
  Yes 0.849 ± 0.163* 24.3 10.8 27.0 50.0 20.3
Q2
  No 0.822 ± 0.185 30.7 15.6 25.4 56.6 23.9
  Yes 0.873 ± 0.139* 14.6 7.3 18.3 48.8 19.5
Q3
  No 0.831 ± 0.177 27.4 13.5 30.3 57.2 23.6
  Yes 0.889 ± 0.125** 15.8 5.3 13.7 45.3 12.6
Q4
  No 0.886 ± 0.144 17.7 5.6 17.7 41.4 16.7
  Yes 0.883 ± 0.140 15.4 5.8 11.5 46.2 19.4
Education attainment
Primary education or below
  No 0.809 ± 0.185 32.4 16.9 32.0 60.0 28.2
  Yes 0.844 ± 0.149* 22.9 9.8 20.5 56.6 22.0
Junior education
  No 0.883 ± 0.153 18.2 6.6 16.7 42.9 13.6
  Yes 0.904 ± 0.115 11.0 3.0 12.0 42.0 15.0
Senior education or above
  No 0.869 ± 0.181 18.8 9.4 20.3 43.8 21.9
  Yes 0.942 ± 0.118* 6.0 4.0 12.0 20.0 4.0
Employment status
Unemployed
  No 0.765 ± 0.204 42.6 24.1 41.8 68.6 29.7
  Yes 0.842 ± 0.160*** 30.1 12.2 23.6 51.2 21.9
Employed
  No 0.858 ± 0.162 22.1 9.7 21.8 49.0 22.1
  Yes 0.893 ± 0.127*** 10.3 4.3 13.4 45.3 15.1
  1. Note: HRQOL Health-related quality of life, MO Mobility, SC Self-care, UA Usual activity, PD Pain/discomfort, AD Anxiety/depression
  2. P-values with statistical significance: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  3. a Observed EQ-5D-3L utility values; SD: standard deviation
  4. b Observed frequency (%) of “have problems” in EQ-5D-3L dimensions
  5. c Independent-samples t-test was used to compare the EQ-5D utility values between contracting status