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Table 2 Mediation results, Hypothesis 1: Educational level → Material conditions → Time orientation → Health behavior

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors: exploring mediation pathways through material conditions and time orientation

Outcomes (in separate models)   Measure of material conditions (tested in separate models)
  Financial strain → Time orientation Housing tenure → Time orientation Income group → Time orientation
N IE DE IE DE IE DE
Health behaviors
Smoking 2661 −0.001 −0.010 0.001 0.009 0.003 0.009
Sports participation 2420 −0.001 0.064** 0.001 0.062* 0.002 0.043
Health behavior-related outcomes
BMI 2630 0.000 −0.058* 0.000 −0.063** 0.000 −0.046
Self-assessed health 2674 0.001 0.145*** −0.001 0.132*** −0.002 0.095***
  1. Results are shown for each of 12 separate models testing the effects of educational level on each of the four outcomes (smoking, sports participation, BMI, self-assessed health) through each of the three measures of material conditions (financial strain, housing tenure, income) followed by time orientation. In the models, all of which include the mediators, direct effects refer to the effect of educational level on health behavior that is not through the sequence of mediators and indirect effects refer to the effect of educational level on health behavior through the sequence of mediators
  2. BMI body mass index, DE direct effect, IE indirect effect through material conditions followed by time orientation
  3. Reported effects are statistically significant at *α = 0.1, **α = 0.05, ***α = 0.01