Skip to main content

Table 5 Association between socio-demographic characteristics with CIAF among infants in India, CNNS 2016–18

From: Socio-economic inequality in anthropometric failure among children aged under 5 years in India: evidence from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey 2016–18

Covariates Composite indicator of anthropometric failure (CIAF)
UORa AORb
Household Characteristics
Wealth Index
  Poorest 4.31 (3.92–4.72)*** 2.41 (2.12–2.75)***
  Poor 3.01 (2.78–3.25)*** 2.00 (1.81–2.22)***
  Middle 2.18 (2.04–2.33)*** 1.65 (1.53–1.79)***
  Rich 1.62 (1.53–1.73)*** 1.42 (1.33–1.52)***
  Richest Ref Ref
Place of Residence
  Urban Ref Ref
  Rural 0.69 (0.66–0.72)*** 1.06 (1.00–1.11)*
Caste
  SC/ST 1.29 (1.23–1.36)*** 1.06 (1.01–1.12)**
  General/OBC Ref Ref
Maternal Covariates
Mother’s BMI
  Underweight 1.76 (1.65–1.87)*** 1.51 (1.42–1.61)***
  Normal Ref Ref
  Overweight/obese 0.56 (0.53–0.60)*** 0.7 (0.65–0.74)***
Mother’s Education
  Uneducated 2.09 (1.97–2.21)*** 1.26 (1.18–1.35)***
  Educated Ref Ref
Mother’s Employment Status
  Non-working Ref Ref
  Working 1.28 (1.21–1.35)*** 1.05 (0.99–1.11)*
Mother’s Age
  < 25 years 1.16 (1.1–1.22)*** 1.04 (0.98–1.1)
  > =25 years Ref Ref
Mother’s Access to Information
  No Ref Ref
  Yes 0.48 (0.46–0.51)*** 0.87 (0.81–0.93)***
Mother’s Parity
  1–2 Ref Ref
  3 or more 1.52 (1.44–1.60)*** 1.15 (1.08–1.22)***
Child Covariates
Age (in years)
  0–2 Ref Ref
  2–4 1.06 (1.01–1.11)** 1.07 (1.02–1.12)**
Sex of Child
  Male 1.06 (1.01–1.11)** 1.07 (1.02–1.12)**
  Female Ref Ref
Morbidity in Past 2 Weeks
  No Ref Ref
  Yes 1.13 (1.08–1.18)*** 1.07 (1.02–1.13)***
  1. aUnadjusted odds ratio; bAdjusted odds ratio
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1