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Table 4 Percentage of the children under-five who had anthropometric failure by their maternal, birth and socio-demographic characteristics

From: Socio-economic inequality in anthropometric failure among children aged under 5 years in India: evidence from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey 2016–18

Covariates Composite indicator of anthropometric failure (CIAF) Total
% (95% CI) p-value n % (95% CI)
Household Characteristics
Wealth Index   < 0.001   
  Poorest 63.1 (60.2–65.8)   2391 19.6 (17.3–22.0)
  Poor 55.3 (51.8–58.7)   3613 20.1 (18.7–21.5)
  Middle 49.5 (47.2–51.8)   5734 19.9 (18.7–21.1)
  Rich 42.4 (40.3–44.4)   7931 20.0 (18.8–21.3)
  Richest 31.5 (29.7–33.4)   10,831 20.5 (18.9–22.2)
Place of Residence   < 0.001   
  Rural 50.5 (48.9–52.2)   16,542 76.4 (73.8–78.9)
  Urban 40.6 (38.9–42.4)   13,958 23.6 (21.1–26.2)
Caste   < 0.001   
  Scheduled Caste/Tribe 52.7 (50.9–54.6)   11,347 35.6 (33.3–38.1)
  Others/OBC 45.7 (44.0–47.4)   19,153 64.4 (61.9–66.7)
Maternal Covariates
Mother’s BMI   < 0.001   
  Underweight 59.1 (56.8–61.3)   5683 28.1 (26.8–29.4)
  Normal 47.2 (45.4–48.9)   17,662 56.6 (55.4–57.7)
  Overweight/obese 32.1 (30.1–34.3)   7155 15.4 (14.3–16.5)
Mother’s Education   < 0.001   
  No education 60.1 (57.8–62.3)   5617 30.4 (28.2–32.6)
  Educated 43.0 (41.6–44.4)   24,883 69.6 (67.4–71.8)
Mother’s Employment Status   < 0.001   
  Not working 46.0 (44.5–47.6)   23,274 76.0 (74.3–77.6)
  Working 55.1 (53.0–57.2)   7226 24.0 (22.4–25.7)
Mother’s Age   < 0.001   
  < 25 years 47.9 (46.0–49.9)   8442 33.3 (32.1–34.6)
  > =25 years 48.3 (46.8–49.9)   22,058 66.6 (65.4–67.8)
Mother’s Access to Information   < 0.001   
  No 57.5 (55.5–59.5)   6980 39.7 (37.1–42.4)
  Yes 42.1 (40.6–43.6)   23,520 60.3 (57.6–62.9)
Mother’s Parity   < 0.001   
  1–2 45.8 (44.3–47.2)   23,847 72.3 (70.8–73.7)
  3 or more 54.6 (52.5–56.6)   6653 27.7 (26.3–29.2)
Child Covariates
Age (in years)   0.021   
  0–2 47.8 (46.1–49.4)   17,943 59.5 (58.3–60.6)
  2–4 48.8 (46.8–50.9)   12,557 40.5 (39.4–41.7)
Sex   0.011   
  Male 48.5 (46.7–50.2)   16,062 52.0 (50.8–53.2)
  Female 47.9 (46.1–49.7)   14,438 48.0 (46.8–49.2)
Morbidity in Past 2 Weeks   < 0.001   
  No 46.0 (44.4–47.6)   17,385 50.7 (49.2–52.2)
  Yes 50.5 (48.6–52.4)   13,115 49.3 (47.8–50.8)