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Table 1 Summary of the GM scientific publications that were reviewed

From: Feminism, gender medicine and beyond: a feminist analysis of "gender medicine"

Reference number

Article title

General subject

Main findings


Sex-specific analysis of hemodialysis prevalence, practices, and mortality over time: The Austrian Dialysis Registry from 1965 to 2014

Sex/gender and health outcomes: renal failure

• Women with renal failure were less likely to undergo hemodialysis.

• Lower rates of kidney transplant in women.

• Higher mortality for men with ESRD compared to women.

• Higher mortality due to dialysis access in women.


Gender in cardiovascular diseases: Impact on clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes

Sex/gender and health outcomes: Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Coronary angiography should not be used as a diagnostic procedure for low to intermediate risk women.

• Consideration of gender may be helpful to decide on most efficient treatment strategies in valvular diseases- the use of TAVI or conventional surgery.

• Resynchronization therapy is less frequently used in women but has a greater benefit in women then in men.

• Implanted defibrillators may be more efficient in men.

• Gendered approaches may lead to a more specific and effective use of resource


Effects of age, gender, and body mass index on efficacy and hypoglycemia outcomes across treat-to-target trials with insulin glargine 100 U/mL added to oral anti-diabetes agents in type 2 diabetes

Sex/gender and health outcomes: diabetes mellitus.

• Female patients with type 2 diabetes treated with Glargine 100 U/mL and Metformin +/- Sulfonylurea are less likely to achieve glycemic targets relatively to male patients and may require more clinical attention.


Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Ischemic Events in Men and Women After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Sex/gender and health outcomes: Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Diabetes mellitus and female gender effect post-PCI risk of ischemic events.

• Risk is equivalent for nondiabetic women and diabetic men.


Sex-specific-differences in cardiometabolic risk in type 1 diabetes: A cross-sectional study

Sex/gender and health outcomes: Diabetes mellitus.

• There are sex differences in lipids and weight in patients with T1DM.

• Glycemic control and frequency of diabetic complications were comparable between the sexes.

• Adherence to treatment guidelines was lower in women than in men.


Similarities in trabecular hypertrophy with site-specific differences in cortical morphology between men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Sex/gender and health outcomes: Diabetes mellitus.

• Skeletal hypertrophy associated with T2DM is present in men and women but appears attenuated at the tibial cortex in men.


Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology, and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Sex/gender and health outcomes: Diabetes mellitus.

• Sex influences on vulnerability to cardiometabolic risk factors, manifestation, clinical picture, and management of T2DM.

• Severity of injury differs in a sex-specific way especially regarding cardiovascular and renal disease.

• Psychosocial factors impact development and progression of diabetes and coping in a gender-dimorphic way.

• Offsprings of hyperglycemic parents may be at greater risk for DM.

• Modern personalized treatment has to consider gender differences.


Gender, aging and longevity in humans: An update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine

Sex/gender and health outcomes

• Gender-specific medicine approach should be established and systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity, and age-related diseases.

• Gender differences have a high impact on health and diseases.


Gender medicine: A task for the third millennium

Sex/gender and health outcomes

• There are gender differences in risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment efficacy in CVD.

• Gender differences in incidence, aggressiveness, and prognosis in variety of cancers.

• Gender differences in epidemiology and progress of certain liver diseases.

• Osteoporosis is underestimated in women, but patients’ and physicians’ awareness is even lower for male osteoporosis.


Sex in basic research: Concepts in the cardiovascular field

1.Sex/gender and health outcomes.

2. The human brain, cognition, and mood

• Reviews basic research work that suggests possible biological mechanisms mediating sex differences in health and in the brain.

• Advocates for considering sex and in basic research and suggests the means to do so.

• Advocates for encouraging scientists to study sex differences in basic research by grants and publication policies.


Sex differences in arterial wave reflection and the role of exogenous and endogenous sex hormones: results of the Berlin Aging Study II

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Mean augmentation index (Aix) was higher in women than in men.

• Oral contraceptive (OCP) use was associated with a higher Aix. Low endogenous estradiol was associated with high Aix.

• OCP’s may promote the development of hypertension by increasing Aix, possibly by suppressing endogenous estradiol.


The association of long-term outcome and biological sex in patients with acute heart failure from different geographic regions

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Women with AHF have a lower 1-year mortality compared to men.

• Women were less likely to receive evidenced-based treatment compared to men.


Sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Reviews clinical data regarding sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors, pre-clinical cardiometabolic disease and overt cardiometabolic disease.

• Reviews molecular mechanisms of sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders.

• Advocates for developing gender-specific diagnostic tests and procedures.

• Advocates for continued research on sex differences in heart disease and on sex-specific therapeutic interventions.


The case for sex- and gender-specific medicine

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Reviews clinical evidence on sex differences in cardiovascular disease.

• Advocates for sex/gender specific approach in diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Gender aspects suggestive of gastroparesis in patients with diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional survey

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

Diabetes mellitus

• Case control study suggesting that gastroparesis symptoms are more prevalent and more sever in female patients with DM.

• Female patients had higher BMI and HgA1C.

• Prevalence and severity of gastroparesis symptoms was higher in obese females with long standing, poorly controlled T2DM.


Vitamin B12 Deficiency and the Role of Gender: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Large Cohort

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

B12 deficiency

• Cross sectional study in healthy individuals.

• Prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in men.


Gender as an independent risk factor for the components of metabolic syndrome among individuals within the normal range of body mass index

Sex/gender and health outcomes:

Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders

• Cross sectional study in health individuals.

• Male gender is an independent risk factor for all components of the Metabolic syndrome, apart from low HDL, which is more prevalent in women.

• When comparing only post-menopausal women to men, differences become smaller.


Gender differences in the comprehension of care plans in an emergency department setting

Treatment decisions and care plans

• No gender-related differences were found in comprehension of care plan in the emergency department.


Is There Gender Discrimination in Acute Renal Colic Pain Management? A Retrospective Analysis in an Emergency Department Setting

Treatment decisions and care plans

• Men with renal colic had a higher VAS score and received more analgesics and opioids.

• Non-Jewish women experienced longer waiting time until medical assessment compared to Jewish women.


The effect of childcare activities on cognitive status and depression in older adults: gender differences in a 4.4-year longitudinal study

Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood

• Daily childcare was associated with reduced rates of cognitive decline in elderly men and women.

• Daily childcare was associated with decreased rates of depression in men but not in women.

• Occasional childcare was associated with reduced depression rates in women and men.


Sex difference or hormonal difference in mental rotation? The influence of ovarian milieu

Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood

• Men perform better then female in the visuospatial Mental Rotation Test. (MRT)

• After analyzing according to the menstrual cycle phase and OCP use, women with low- estradiol performed as good as men, and better than the high-estradiol group.

• No gender differentiation was found in verbal memory control task but performance varied with hormonal milieu.


Crying, oral contraceptive use and the menstrual cycle

Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood

• Women in the reproductive reported feeling more like crying pre-menstrual but may not actually cry more during this phase.

• Oral contraceptive use had no effect.


Yes, there is a female and a male brain: Morphology versus functionality

Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood

• Rejects the findings of a study that showed that brains of males and females are functionally and morphologically diverse and cannot fit into a male/ female category.

• Claims that female and male brains are distinct.

• Claims that testosterone has a crucial affect on the developing brain, and is responsible for sex differences in the brain.


Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study

Sex/gender and working conditions and promotion in healthcare

• Emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients.

• Age above 45 was associated wit decreased burnout in men but not women.

• There is a need for gender specific preventive strategies to reduce burnout.


Parenthood does not explain the gender difference in clinical position in academic medicine among Swedish, Dutch and Austrian physicians

Sex/gender and working conditions and promotion in healthcare

• Gender influences clinical position.

• Female physicians publish fewer articles then male physicians.

• Number of children or working hours did not explain gender differences in publication activity or clinical position.

• Factors such as the academic working environment, may still disadvantage women’s progress.


Male Medical Students’ Gender-Role Conflict Is Associated with Their Discomfort With Dealing With Patients’ Sexual Health Issues

Sex/gender and medical education

• Knowledge about sexual health was associated with comfort.

• Male students who had difficulty expressing affection towards men or expressing emotions were likely to feel uncomfortable asking patients about sexual health issues.


Integrating topics of sex and gender into medical curricula - Lessons from the international community

Sex/gender and medical education

• Advocates for inclusion of sex/gender difference in health and disease management into medical curricula.

• Suggests methodologies and information resources.


Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research

Sex in preclinical research

• Sex is an important biologic variable and should be considered in pre-clinical research.

• Suggests strategies to incorporate sex as a biological variable in study design, performance and analysis.

• Suggests considering sex chromosomes and sex hormones in basic research and sex/gender aspects in animal studies.