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Table 1 Summary of the GM scientific publications that were reviewed

From: Feminism, gender medicine and beyond: a feminist analysis of "gender medicine"

Reference number Article title General subject Main findings
[16] Sex-specific analysis of hemodialysis prevalence, practices, and mortality over time: The Austrian Dialysis Registry from 1965 to 2014 Sex/gender and health outcomes: renal failure • Women with renal failure were less likely to undergo hemodialysis.
• Lower rates of kidney transplant in women.
• Higher mortality for men with ESRD compared to women.
• Higher mortality due to dialysis access in women.
[17] Gender in cardiovascular diseases: Impact on clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes Sex/gender and health outcomes: Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders • Coronary angiography should not be used as a diagnostic procedure for low to intermediate risk women.
• Consideration of gender may be helpful to decide on most efficient treatment strategies in valvular diseases- the use of TAVI or conventional surgery.
• Resynchronization therapy is less frequently used in women but has a greater benefit in women then in men.
• Implanted defibrillators may be more efficient in men.
• Gendered approaches may lead to a more specific and effective use of resource
[18] Effects of age, gender, and body mass index on efficacy and hypoglycemia outcomes across treat-to-target trials with insulin glargine 100 U/mL added to oral anti-diabetes agents in type 2 diabetes Sex/gender and health outcomes: diabetes mellitus. • Female patients with type 2 diabetes treated with Glargine 100 U/mL and Metformin +/- Sulfonylurea are less likely to achieve glycemic targets relatively to male patients and may require more clinical attention.
[19] Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Ischemic Events in Men and Women After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Sex/gender and health outcomes: Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders • Diabetes mellitus and female gender effect post-PCI risk of ischemic events.
• Risk is equivalent for nondiabetic women and diabetic men.
[20] Sex-specific-differences in cardiometabolic risk in type 1 diabetes: A cross-sectional study Sex/gender and health outcomes: Diabetes mellitus. • There are sex differences in lipids and weight in patients with T1DM.
• Glycemic control and frequency of diabetic complications were comparable between the sexes.
• Adherence to treatment guidelines was lower in women than in men.
[21] Similarities in trabecular hypertrophy with site-specific differences in cortical morphology between men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus Sex/gender and health outcomes: Diabetes mellitus. • Skeletal hypertrophy associated with T2DM is present in men and women but appears attenuated at the tibial cortex in men.
[22] Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology, and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus Sex/gender and health outcomes: Diabetes mellitus. • Sex influences on vulnerability to cardiometabolic risk factors, manifestation, clinical picture, and management of T2DM.
• Severity of injury differs in a sex-specific way especially regarding cardiovascular and renal disease.
• Psychosocial factors impact development and progression of diabetes and coping in a gender-dimorphic way.
• Offsprings of hyperglycemic parents may be at greater risk for DM.
• Modern personalized treatment has to consider gender differences.
[23] Gender, aging and longevity in humans: An update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine Sex/gender and health outcomes • Gender-specific medicine approach should be established and systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity, and age-related diseases.
• Gender differences have a high impact on health and diseases.
[24] Gender medicine: A task for the third millennium Sex/gender and health outcomes • There are gender differences in risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment efficacy in CVD.
• Gender differences in incidence, aggressiveness, and prognosis in variety of cancers.
• Gender differences in epidemiology and progress of certain liver diseases.
• Osteoporosis is underestimated in women, but patients’ and physicians’ awareness is even lower for male osteoporosis.
[25] Sex in basic research: Concepts in the cardiovascular field 1.Sex/gender and health outcomes.
2. The human brain, cognition, and mood
• Reviews basic research work that suggests possible biological mechanisms mediating sex differences in health and in the brain.
• Advocates for considering sex and in basic research and suggests the means to do so.
• Advocates for encouraging scientists to study sex differences in basic research by grants and publication policies.
[26] Sex differences in arterial wave reflection and the role of exogenous and endogenous sex hormones: results of the Berlin Aging Study II Sex/gender and health outcomes:
Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders
• Mean augmentation index (Aix) was higher in women than in men.
• Oral contraceptive (OCP) use was associated with a higher Aix. Low endogenous estradiol was associated with high Aix.
• OCP’s may promote the development of hypertension by increasing Aix, possibly by suppressing endogenous estradiol.
[27] The association of long-term outcome and biological sex in patients with acute heart failure from different geographic regions Sex/gender and health outcomes:
Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders
• Women with AHF have a lower 1-year mortality compared to men.
• Women were less likely to receive evidenced-based treatment compared to men.
[28] Sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders Sex/gender and health outcomes:
Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders
• Reviews clinical data regarding sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors, pre-clinical cardiometabolic disease and overt cardiometabolic disease.
• Reviews molecular mechanisms of sex differences in cardiometabolic disorders.
• Advocates for developing gender-specific diagnostic tests and procedures.
• Advocates for continued research on sex differences in heart disease and on sex-specific therapeutic interventions.
[29] The case for sex- and gender-specific medicine Sex/gender and health outcomes:
Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders
• Reviews clinical evidence on sex differences in cardiovascular disease.
• Advocates for sex/gender specific approach in diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
[30] Gender aspects suggestive of gastroparesis in patients with diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional survey Sex/gender and health outcomes:
Diabetes mellitus
• Case control study suggesting that gastroparesis symptoms are more prevalent and more sever in female patients with DM.
• Female patients had higher BMI and HgA1C.
• Prevalence and severity of gastroparesis symptoms was higher in obese females with long standing, poorly controlled T2DM.
[31] Vitamin B12 Deficiency and the Role of Gender: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Large Cohort Sex/gender and health outcomes:
B12 deficiency
• Cross sectional study in healthy individuals.
• Prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in men.
[32] Gender as an independent risk factor for the components of metabolic syndrome among individuals within the normal range of body mass index Sex/gender and health outcomes:
Cardiovascular diseases and related disorders
• Cross sectional study in health individuals.
• Male gender is an independent risk factor for all components of the Metabolic syndrome, apart from low HDL, which is more prevalent in women.
• When comparing only post-menopausal women to men, differences become smaller.
[33] Gender differences in the comprehension of care plans in an emergency department setting Treatment decisions and care plans • No gender-related differences were found in comprehension of care plan in the emergency department.
[34] Is There Gender Discrimination in Acute Renal Colic Pain Management? A Retrospective Analysis in an Emergency Department Setting Treatment decisions and care plans • Men with renal colic had a higher VAS score and received more analgesics and opioids.
• Non-Jewish women experienced longer waiting time until medical assessment compared to Jewish women.
[35] The effect of childcare activities on cognitive status and depression in older adults: gender differences in a 4.4-year longitudinal study Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood • Daily childcare was associated with reduced rates of cognitive decline in elderly men and women.
• Daily childcare was associated with decreased rates of depression in men but not in women.
• Occasional childcare was associated with reduced depression rates in women and men.
[36] Sex difference or hormonal difference in mental rotation? The influence of ovarian milieu Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood • Men perform better then female in the visuospatial Mental Rotation Test. (MRT)
• After analyzing according to the menstrual cycle phase and OCP use, women with low- estradiol performed as good as men, and better than the high-estradiol group.
• No gender differentiation was found in verbal memory control task but performance varied with hormonal milieu.
[37] Crying, oral contraceptive use and the menstrual cycle Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood • Women in the reproductive reported feeling more like crying pre-menstrual but may not actually cry more during this phase.
• Oral contraceptive use had no effect.
[38] Yes, there is a female and a male brain: Morphology versus functionality Sex/gender and the human brain, cognition, and mood • Rejects the findings of a study that showed that brains of males and females are functionally and morphologically diverse and cannot fit into a male/ female category.
• Claims that female and male brains are distinct.
• Claims that testosterone has a crucial affect on the developing brain, and is responsible for sex differences in the brain.
[39] Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study Sex/gender and working conditions and promotion in healthcare • Emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients.
• Age above 45 was associated wit decreased burnout in men but not women.
• There is a need for gender specific preventive strategies to reduce burnout.
[40] Parenthood does not explain the gender difference in clinical position in academic medicine among Swedish, Dutch and Austrian physicians Sex/gender and working conditions and promotion in healthcare • Gender influences clinical position.
• Female physicians publish fewer articles then male physicians.
• Number of children or working hours did not explain gender differences in publication activity or clinical position.
• Factors such as the academic working environment, may still disadvantage women’s progress.
[41] Male Medical Students’ Gender-Role Conflict Is Associated with Their Discomfort With Dealing With Patients’ Sexual Health Issues Sex/gender and medical education • Knowledge about sexual health was associated with comfort.
• Male students who had difficulty expressing affection towards men or expressing emotions were likely to feel uncomfortable asking patients about sexual health issues.
[42] Integrating topics of sex and gender into medical curricula - Lessons from the international community Sex/gender and medical education • Advocates for inclusion of sex/gender difference in health and disease management into medical curricula.
• Suggests methodologies and information resources.
[43] Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research Sex in preclinical research • Sex is an important biologic variable and should be considered in pre-clinical research.
• Suggests strategies to incorporate sex as a biological variable in study design, performance and analysis.
• Suggests considering sex chromosomes and sex hormones in basic research and sex/gender aspects in animal studies.