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Table 4 Association between the prevalence of NCDs and socio-economic factors (logistic regression)

From: Socioeconomic determinants and inequalities in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Saudi Arabia

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Age       
18–29 Reference Reference Reference
30–39 2.662*** (2.123–3.337) 2.761*** (2.194–3.475) 2.764*** (2.196–3.478)
40–49 13.069*** (10.510–16.250) 12.422*** (9.929–15.542) 12.537*** (10.019–15.689)
50–59 46.303*** (37.219–57.603) 42.104*** (33.521–52.885) 42.423*** (33.764–53.303)
≥ 60 149.848*** (119.820-187.401) 125.850*** (98.683-160.496) 126.621*** (99.256-161.532)
Gender       
Female Reference Reference Reference
Male 0.849*** (0.759–0.950) 0.924 (0.823–1.038) 0.915 (0.814–1.029)
Marital status       
Married Reference Reference Reference
Unmarried 1.543*** (1.312–1.814) 1.526*** (1.296–1.799) 1.506*** (1.277–1.775)
Education level       
Below primary school   Reference Reference
Primary school    0.877 (0.723–1.063) 0.900 (0.741–1.093)
Intermediate school    1.055 (0.873–1.275) 1.107 (0.912–1.344)
Secondary school    0.622*** (0.523–0.740) 0.654*** (0.546–0.784)
Higher education    0.599*** (0.497–0.723) 0.650*** (0.531–0.795)
Nationality       
Non-Saudi Reference Reference Reference
Saudi 1.962*** (1.697–2.267) 1.853*** (1.616–2.125) 1.921*** (1.662–2.223)
Monthly income (Saudi Riyal)       
 < 3000 Reference   Reference
3000 to < 5000 1.103 (0.875–1.391)    1.131 (0.896–1.427)
5000 to < 7000 1.074 (0.849–1.359)    1.139 (0.899–1.443)
7000 to < 10,000 0.803* (0.637–1.011)    0.907 (0.716–1.150)
10,000 to < 15,000 0.765** (0.606–0.966)    0.886 (0.696–1.127)
15,000 to < 20,000 0.729** (0.561–0.947)    0.868 (0.661-0.1.139)
20,000 to < 30,000 0.629*** (0.469–0.844)    0.760* (0.560–1.032)
≥ 30,000 1.202 (0.879–1.645)    1.506** (1.089–2.083)
Region       
Riyadh Reference Reference Reference
Albaha 0.710*** (0.551–0.914) 0.688*** (0.534–0.887) 0.688*** (0.533–0.888)
Aljouf 0.543*** (0.379–0.777) 0.573*** (0.403–0.816) 0.540*** (0.377–0.773)
Aseer 0.708** (0.531–0.945) 0.688** (0.515–0.918) 0.664*** (0.497–0.888)
Eastern Region 0.639*** (0.510–0.802) 0.645*** (0.514–0.809) 0.636*** (0.506-0.800)
Haiel 0.545*** (0.416–0.713) 0.565*** (0.432–0.740) 0.527*** (0.402–0.691)
Jazan 0.414*** (0.308–0.556) 0.421*** (0.313–0.565) 0.419*** (0.312–0.563)
Madenah 0.649*** (0.505–0.832) 0.674*** (0.527–0.862) 0.641*** (0.498–0.824)
Mekkah 1.046 (0.865–1.266) 1.069 (0.886–1.291) 1.028 (0.849–1.245)
Najran 0.440*** (0.314–0.616) 0.412*** (0.294–0.578) 0.416*** (0.297–0.584)
Northern border 0.412*** (0.280–0.606) 0.408*** (0.277–0.602) 0.374*** (0.252–0.555)
Qassim 1.263** (1.023–1.556) 1.330*** (1.080–1.636) 1.243** (1.006–1.536)
Tabuk 0.797* (0.619–1.027) 0.783* (0.608–1.008) 0.765** (0.592–0.987)
Constant 0.033*** (0.024–0.046) 0.040*** (0.029–0.054) 0.039*** (0.027–0.055)
Observations 11,527   11,527   11,527  
Pseudo R-squared 0.408   0.410   0.411  
Chi-squared 5901***   5922***   5954***  
  1. Note. 95 % confidence intervals are in parentheses; Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio; *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1