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Table 3 GEE regression analysis of physician density, 2003–2013

From: Physician distribution across China’s cities: regional variations

Characteristic Model 1
OR (95% CI)
Model 2
OR (95% CI)
Intercept2 0.01 (0.01 to 0.03) *** 0.02 (0.01 to 0.04) ***
Intercept1 0.17 (0.07 to 0.38) *** 0.21 (0.09 to 0.48) ***
Year 2013 (vs. year 2003) 0.49 (0.34 to 0.72) *** 0.50 (0.33 to 0.75) ***
Urban district (vs. county-level city) 2.62 (1.84 to 3.73) ***  
Geographic location
 Eastern (vs. Western) 0.52 (0.36 to 0.77) **  
 Northeastern (vs. Western) 0.73 (0.45 to 1.21)  
 Central (vs. Western) 0.65 (0.44 to 0.95) *  
Geographic location & Administrative level
 County-level city x Western     Ref.
 Urban district x Eastern     1.49 (0.81 to 2.74)
 County-level city x Eastern     0.32 (0.20 to 0.52) ***
 Urban district x Northeastern     1.09 (0.49 to 2.38)
 County-level city x Northeastern     0.62 (0.33 to1.15)
 Urban district x Central     1.47 (0.80 to 2.71)
 County-level city x Central     0.42 (0.25 to 0.70) ***
 Urban district x Western     1.53 (0.93 to2.52)
U.A. (vs. non-U.A.) 0.87 (0.51 to 1.49) 0.75 (0.44 to 1.29)
High school education or above (%) 1.21 (1.17 to 1.25) *** 1.21 (1.17 to 1.25) ***
GDP per capita (10,000 CNY) 1.15 (0.83 to 1.59) 1.02 (0.96 to 1.08)
Population density (/1000 km2) 0.99 (0.78 to 1.25) 0.96 (0.76 to 1.22)
Female-to-male ratio (in a unit of 10%) 0.84 (0.70 to 0.99) * 0.86 (0.73 to 1.01)
Migrant (in a unit of 10%) 1.08 (0.91 to 1.28) 1.07 (0.90 to 1.26)
Minority (in a unit of 10%) 1.02 (0.93 to 1.12) 0.99 (0.91 to 1.09)
Aged under 15 (in a unit of 10%) 0.93 (0.81 to 1.07) 0.94 (0.83 to 1.07)
Aged over 65 (in a unit of 10%) 1.57 (0.66 to 3.72) 1.78 (0.70 to 4.54)
  1. Note: *** P < .001; ** P < .01; * P < .05. U.A. represents urban agglomeration. County-level city x Western represents county-level cities in Western China. GDP was adjusted by Consumer Price Index