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Table 3 Mean number of places according to essential service types available in the census tract

From: Social inequalities in the surrounding areas of food deserts and food swamps in a Brazilian metropolis

Census tract features FOOD DESERT FOOD SWAMPS Food deserts and food swamps at the same time(n = 487)a
Yes(n = 1444) No(n = 2386) Yes(n = 2240) No (n = 1590)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Water supply
General network*+ 161.76 ± 99.45 220.11 ± 89.31 219.46 ± 90.61 168.03 ± 98.81 185.87 ± 93.82
Other supply forms 0.22 ± 1.39 0.32 ± 2.13 0.32 ± 2.13 0.22 ± 1.47 0.18 ± 0.82
Garbage collection
Collected garbage*+ 160.95 ± 99.85 219.93 ± 89.46 219.32 ± 90.82 167.22 ± 99.11 185.26 ± 94.33
Garbage collected by cleaning service*+ 156.12 ± 100.48 217.45 ± 90.53 216.29 ± 92.10 163.38 ± 100.03 179.38 ± 95.85
Garbage collected in cleaning service bucket* 4.83 ± 22.18 2.48 ± 17.51 3.03 ± 19.73 3.84 ± 19.02 5.88 ± 26.72
Others 1.25 ± 9.88 0.72 ± 7.98 0.76 ± 8.63 1.14 ± 8.91 1.19 ± 10.50
Electric power
Permanent private places with electricity*+ 162.23 ± 99.53 220.62 ± 89.39 220.06 ± 90.65 168.38 ± 98.88 186.45 ± 93.89
Electricity from distribution company*+ 161.06 ± 99.43 220.08 ± 89.47 219.56 ± 90.67 167.20 ± 98.88 185.94 ± 93.72
Permanent private places without electricity 0.07 ± 0.35 0.08 ± 0.34 0.07 ± 0.33 0.08 ± 0.36 0.07 ± 0.31
  1. Note:; * Statistical difference between food deserts and no- food deserts; + Statistical difference between food swamps and no- food swamps; Statistical difference a Comparison as the sectors that are neither deserts nor swamps (S1);p-value calculated by the t-test; p-value < 0,05