Note. We used an ordinary least squares model to analyze outcomes on age and log of total medical spending. We used logistic models to analyze the outcomes on whether the mother had obtained the minimum recommended number of prenatal care checkups, whether a Cesarean section was conducted, and whether the delivery took place at a tertiary hospital. For all of the regressions, we included maternal age and dummy variables for year and month. We used mothers with urban hukou status as the reference group. 95% confidence intervals are shown in brackets.