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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of sample at baseline

From: Temporal trends and variation in out-of-pocket expenditures and patient cost sharing: evidence from a Chinese national survey 2011–2015

  N (%)
Health insurance
 No insurance 602 (5.8)
 NCMS 8072 (73.7)
 URBMI 470 (5.5)
 UEBMI 922 (12.1)
 Others 250 (2.9)
Location
 Urban 3575 (41.3)
 Rural 6741 (58.7)
PCE
 Lowest 20% 1170 (694)
 Lower 20% 2697 (1164)
 Middle 20% 4500 (1801)
 Higher 20% 7548 (2797)
 Highest 20% 14,260 (17328)
Employment
 Not working 252 (2.5)
 Retired 2417 (26.1)
 Working 7647 (71.4)
Education
 Elementary or below 6861 (64.6)
 Secondary school 3314 (33.4)
 College and above 141 (2)
Age (years)
 45–54 3921 (38.9)
 55–64 4150 (38.9)
 65–74 1818 (17.8)
 ≥ 75 427 (4.4)
Gender
 Male 5086 (48.9)
 Female 5230 (51.1)
Marital
 single or divorce or widowed 955 (9.8)
 married or cohabitated 9361 (90.2)
Comorbidity
 None 3450 (34.2)
 1 NCD 3244 (31.3)
 2 NCDs 1997 (18.9)
 ≥ 3 NCDs 1625 (15.5)
N 10,316
  1. Note:
  2. •All results are weighted to account for complex survey design.
  3. Abbreviation: UEBMI Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, URBMI Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance, NCMS New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme, Others government health care, private medical insurance and others, NCD Non-communicable disease, PCE Per capita expenditure (Chinese Yuan)
  4. •median PCE of each wealth group was displayed with standard deviation in parentheses