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Table 5 Relative risk (95% CI) and population attributable fraction for combinations of SE and social factorsb c

From: The cumulation of ill health and low agency in socially excluded city dwellers in the Netherlands: how to better identify high-risk/high-need population segments with public health survey data

  SE (10.3%)a SE + low education (16.7%)a SE + low household income (29.0%)a SE + low labour market position (19.4%)a SE + non-Western migration background (34.8%)a
RR PAF RR PAF RR PAF RR PAF RR PAF
CVD risk factors
♦ Diabetes 2.25 (1.96–2.57) 11.33 3.22 ↑(2.89–3.58) 27.07 1.70 ↓(1.52–1.89) 16.83 2.25 (2.01–2.53) 19.58 2.24 (2.03–2.47) 30.14
♦ High blood pressure 1.63 (1.47–1.81) 6.09 2.03 ↑(1.87–2.20) 14.69 1.16 ↓(1.07–1.26) 4.41 1.67 (1.53–1.82) 11.49 1.21 ↓(1.12–1.30) 6.76
♦ Current smoking 1.58 (1.46–1.71) 5.64 1.32 ↓(1.23–1.42) 5.15 1.52 (1.42–1.61) 13.01 1.53 (1.43–1.63) 9.31 1.16 ↓(1.09–1.24) 5.28
♦ Obesity 1.92 (1.72–2.14) 8.60 2.31 (2.12–2.52) 18.00 1.54 ↓(1.41–1.68) 13.60 2.10 (1.92–2.29) 17.57 1.82 (1.68–1.98) 22.29
♦ Inactivity 3.29 (2.92–3.70) 18.99 3.30 (2.96–3.67) 27.80 2.28 ↓(2.05–2.54) 27.11 3.30 (2.96–3.68) 30.93 2.98 (2.69–3.30) 40.83
Cancer 1.31 (1.02–1.69) 3.11 1.64 (1.36–1.98) 9.74 0.95 (0.79–1.15) −1.41 1.48 (1.22–1.81) 8.60 0.75 ↓(0.61–0.90) −9.92
Low self-rated health 2.83 (2.69–2.99) 15.83 3.11 (2.96–3.27) 26.14 2.11 ↓(2.00–2.22) 24.30 3.18 ↑(3.02–3.34) 29.71 2.20 ↓(2.08–2.31) 29.40
Anxiety /depression 7.95 (7.19–8.78) 41.60 6.44 ↓(5.78–7.18) 47.67 4.68 ↓(4.17–5.25) 51.63 8.54 (7.63–9.57) 59.45 4.60 ↓(4.10–5.17) 55.66
Low personal control 6.36 (5.87–6.91) 35.49 5.92 (5.44–6.45) 45.20 3.61 ↓(3.31–3.95) 43.09 6.42 (5.89–6.99) 51.30 3.31 ↓(3.03–3.61) 44.56
  1. a Weighted prevalences, population 19 years and older, G4, 2016
  2. b In italic if not significant at α = 0.05 and bold if RR strong, i.e., between 3 and 8 [26]
  3. c ↓ RR is significantly lower than the RR of SE alone, i.e., no overlap of 95% CIs, ↑ RR is significantly higher than the RR of SE alone