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Table 7 Characteristics of included studies – Those who remain behind

From: Transnational social networks, health, and care: a systematic narrative literature review

Reference Number Study (n = 18) Country Perspective # of participants Data collection Analysis data Health focus of study
[35] Amin and Ingman, 2014 Bangladesh Those who remain behind (respondents were Bangladeshi migrants in the US) 21 Interviews (in-depth semi-structured questionnaires) Thematic coding strategy Eldercare practices and experiences
[41] Battaglia, 2015 Mexico Those who remain behind 39,133 Secondary cross data from Mexican National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID—Encuesta Nacional de Dinámica Demográfica) IV Regression Teenage fertility
[42] Beine, Docquier and Schiff, 2013 Analysis of 175 countries Those who remain behind (worldwide perspective) 175 countries Secondary data:
-Fertility data (WDI)
-Bilateral migration stocks (Parsons et al., 2007)
- the skilled-to-unskilled ratio of emigration rates from Docquier, Lowell, and Marfouk, 2009
- Data on from the IMF database
urbanisation rate (WDI)
- the share of Catholics and Muslims in each source country population, and religious dummies; regions are consistent with the World Bank definition.
-OLS regressions
-IV regressions
-Dynamic specification model
[36] Chinouya, 2006 Different sub-Saharan African countries (Zimbabwe, Uganda, Nigeria, Zambia, Burundi, Somalia, South Africa, Kenya and Malawi) Those who remain behind (respondents were sub-Saharan migrants in the UK) 60 Interviews Framework method HIV status and transnational childcare taking
[43] Creighton, Goldman, Teruel and Rubalcava, 2011 Mexico Those who remain behind 3593 Secondary longitudinal data from Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS)) Three-Level Random-Intercept Logistic Regression Models Overweight / Obesity
[44] De, 2013 Mexico Those who remain behind 11,907 Secondary data from ENADID (Encuesta Nacional de Dinámica Demográfica or National Survey of Demographic Dynamics) survey - Single Equation Probit Models
-Instrumental Variable Regression
Contraceptive use
[45] Diabate and Mesplé-Somps, 2019 Mali Those who remain behind 5138 Secondary data from ENEM-2009 (Enquête Nationale sur l’Excision au Mali) -OLS regression
-Instrumental Variable Regression
Female Genital Mutilation
[46] Fargues, 2011 Morocco, Turkey, and Egypt Those who remain behind MENA countries Secondary time-series data on birth rates and migrant remittances -Demographic analysis
-Time correlation
Birth rates
[47] Frank, 2005 Mexico Those who remain behind 565 Secondary data from a hospital-based postpartum survey that was implemented in eight different hospitals in Western Mexico (HPS 2001) Multivariate analysis Infant health
[8] Levitt and Lamba-Nieves, 2011 Dominican Republic Those who remain behind (Dominican Republican Diaspora communities in the US) 50 Semi-structured interviews and 20 years of fieldwork Not stated Home-Town Associations (HTA) involvement in health-related projects at COO
[48] Lindstrom and Muñoz-Franco, 2005 Guatemala Those who remain behind 2531 Secondary data from 1995 Guatemalan Survey of Family Health (EGSF) - Multilevel linear regression
- Multilevel logistic regression
Contraceptive knowledge and use
[49] Lindstrom and Muñoz-Franco, 2006 Guatemala Those who remain behind 1838 Secondary data from 1995 Guatemalan Survey of Family Health (EGSF) Multi-level logistic regression Maternal health services utilization
[37] Mekonnen and Lohnert, 2018 Ethiopia Those who remain behind (Ethiopian Diaspora communities in Germany) 2 Diaspora associations located in Frankfurt Key informant interviews, observations, and literature reviews on migration and development Not stated Diaspora engagement in health-related development
[38] Patzer, 2018 -US
Those who remain behind (respondents in US and Philippines) Paper focuses on one case study of a migrant family (US-Philippines), supplemented with other observations Multi-sited ethnography: participant observation, interviews, and the analysis of the use of new media for migrants in the US and those who remain behind in the Philippines Not stated Long-distance care and Food consumption
[50] Roosen and Siegel, 2018 Afghanistan Those who remain behind 25,419 Secondary data from cross-sectional data from the Afghan Mortality Survey (2010) -Ordinary least squares regression
-Propensity score matching
-IV regression
Birth control knowledge and use
[39] Rubyan-Ling, 2019 Sierra Leon Those who remain behind (Sierra Leonean Diaspora communities in the UK) Interviews: 10 Participant observation, semi-structured interviews Not stated Diaspora mobilization during the Ebola outbreak
[5] Sobiech, 2019 Ghana Those who remain behind (Ghanaian Diaspora communities in Germany) Interviews: 50 Semi-structured interviews, observations, and documents Thematic analysis Diaspora engagement in health-related development
[40] Sriram, George, Baru and Bennett, 2018 India Those who remain behind (different domestic, diasporic, and foreign organisations (e.g., from U.S., U.K., Australia, Singapore, and Saudi Arabia)) -Interviews: 87
-Document review: 248
-Participant observation: 6
In-depth interviews, document review, and non-participant observation of conferences and meetings Framework method Transfer of biomedical knowledge