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Table 2 Health indicators of 1300 participants of nationally representative of Jordanian men and women older than 18 years-old according to their age group

From: Gender-based disparities on health indices during COVID-19 crisis: a nationwide cross-sectional study in Jordan

Variables   Total (%) Males (Age group) Female (Age group) Gender differences (p-value) c
Total (%) < 30 30–50 > 50 p-valuea Total (%) < 30 30–50 > 50 p-valueb
Chronic medical illnesses Yes 332 (25.54) 166 (25.3) 1 (0.60) 48 (28.92) 117 (70.48) < 0.01 166 (25.78) 1 (0.6) 58 (34.9) 107 (64.5) < 0.01 1.00
Valid health insurance Yes 949 (73.00) 483 (73.60) 77 (15.94) 229 (47.41) 177 (36.65) < 0.01 466 (72.4) 98 (21) 228 (49) 140 (30) < 0.01 0.60
Availability of transport mean Yes 792 (60.92) 399 (60.82) 110 (27.57) 156 (39.10) 133 (33.33) 0.05 393 (61) 94 (23.9) 186 (47.3) 113 (28.8) 0.25 0.98
Access to hospitals during the crisis Yes 250 (69) 128 (68.45) 46
(35.94)
28 (21.88) 54 (42.19) 0.9 122 (69.7) 30 (24.6) 50 (41) 42 (34.4) 0.11 0.92
Contraceptive use Yes 300 (38.4) 136 (35.42) 14 (10.29) 108 (79.41) 14 (10.29) < 0.01 164 (41.31) 30 (18.3) 134 (81.7) 0 (0) < 0.01 0.81
Access to contraceptive affected during the crisis Yes 252 (32.27) 117 (30.47) 14 (11.97) 92 (78.63) 11 (9.40) < 0.01 135 (34.01) 30 (22.2) 102 (77.8) 0 (0) < 0.01 0.29
Currently pregnant Yes 20 (5.95) 20 (10) 11 (55.00) 9 (45.00) 0 (0) < 0.01  
Psychological stress (PHQ-4)d 0–12 4.18 ± 3.15 3.7 (3) 4.1 (3.1) 3.9 (3.1) 2.9 (2.8) < 0.01 4.7 (3.2) 4.7 (3) 5.2 (3.2) 3.9 (3.1) < 0.01 < 0.01
loneliness scaled 0–9 6.87 ± 2.18 7 (2.1) 6.9 (2.1) 6.9 (2.2) 7.2 (2.1) 0.3 6.8 (2.2) 7.0 (2.11) 6.5 (2.3) 7.1 (2) 0.01 0.10
COVID-19 stigma (S-stigma score)d 0–15 7.81 ± 3.08 7.8 (3.1) 7.7 (3.5) 7.8 (3.1) 7.8 (2.9) 0.97 7.9 (3.0) 7.99 (2.9) 7.95 (2.96) 7.6 (3.29) 0.1 0.60
  1. a Age-based differences among males: Chronic medical illnesses, having valid health insurance or transport mean to hospital, contraceptives use and PHQ-4 scores differed according to age in males
  2. b Age-based differences among females: Chronic medical illnesses, having valid health insurance, contraceptives use, pregnancy, PHQ-4 scores and loneliness differed according to age in females
  3. c Gender-based differences: Only PHQ-4 scores differed according to gender
  4. dPresented as means (Standard deviations)