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Table 5 Utilization of workplace breastfeeding interventions and its association with breastmilk expression/ pumping behaviors, quantitative studies

From: Breastfeeding at the workplace: a systematic review of interventions to improve workplace environments to facilitate breastfeeding among working women

Author (yr) Country (City) Population (n) Design Type of BF intervention Outcome variable Type of analysis Effects & associations Quality assessment
Henry-Moss D, Abbuhl S, Bellini L, Spatz DL. (2018) [46] USA (Philadelphia) Women working at
Penn Medicine facility and had pumped milk at work within the previous 5 years (n = 151)
Cross-sectional -Designated spaces for BF1 or expressing milk Breast pumping duration Bivariate Women who had pumped for at least one child reported reaching their personal pumping goal, and a significantly longer duration. Very low
Snyder K, Hansen K, Brown S, Portratz A, White K, Dinkel D. (2018) [47] USA (Nebraska) Women returning to work while breastfeeding (n = 1002) Cross-sectional -Designated spaces for BF or expressing milk
-Flexible scheduling to support milk expression
- Support from colleagues
Breast pumping duration Chi-square goodness of fit tests. Breast pumping duration significantly varied with type of work, as well as other factors such as employer support and meeting BF goals. Very low
Tsai SY. (2014) [48] Southern Taiwan Employed mothers at a large electronics manufacturer company in Southern Taiwan (n = 715) Cross-sectional -Designated spaces for BF or expressing milk
-Support from colleagues
Use of expression breaks, use of lactation rooms, BF duration Logistic regression Significant association between:
-partner’s BF support and use of breaks (AOR2 = 1.43) and use of lactation room (AOR = 1.66),
-partner’s encouragement to use the lactation room and use of breaks (AOR = 6.64); lactation room (AOR = 7.35)
-partner’s encouragement to use milk expression breaks and use of breaks (AOR = 3.23); lactation room (AOR = 2.64)
-partner’s support intention to keep BF and use of breaks (AOR = 2.63=, lactation room (AOR = 2.10)
Partner’s support increased the odds of continuing BF.
Low
Tsai SY. (2014) [49] Southern Taiwan Employed mothers at a large electronics manufacturer company in Southern Taiwan (n = 715) Cross-sectional -Designated spaces for BF or expressing milk
-Support from colleagues
Use of pumping breaks Logistic regressions Associations between use of pump breaks and higher education (AOR = 2.33), type of work station (AOR = 1.51), awareness of pumping breaks (AOR = 4.1), having encouragement of colleagues to use the breaks (AOR = 1.76), better awareness of BF benefits (AOR = 1.08), perceptions that taking the breaks can reduce work efficiency (AOR = 0.55) Low
  1. 1 BF Breastfeeding, 2AOR Adjusted odds ratio