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Table 4 Workplace breastfeeding interventions and their association with BF exclusivity, quantitative studies

From: Breastfeeding at the workplace: a systematic review of interventions to improve workplace environments to facilitate breastfeeding among working women

Author (yr) Country (City) Population (n) Design Type of BF intervention Outcome variable Type of analysis Differences & associations Quality assessment
Bai Y, Wunderlich SM. (2013) [42] USA (New Jersey) Female staff and faculty + 18 years, currently BF or had BF within 18 months prior to the study (n = 113) Cross-sectional -Designated spaces for BF1 or expressing milk
-Support from colleagues
Duration of EBF2 Pearson’s
r correlation analysis
Positive and significant correlation between duration of EBF and workplace support – supervisor support, lactation space (r = 0.26), and technical support – fridge, pump (r = 0.71) Low
Basrowi RW, Sulistomo AB, Adi NP, Vandenplas Y. (2015) [43] Indonesia (Jakarta) Female employees of 3 government offices and 3 factories whose children were between 6 and 36 months old (n = 186) Cross-sectional -BF education
-Designated spaces for BF or expressing milk
EBF at 6 months Chi-square EBF at 6 months was higher among women with a dedicated lactation space (OR3 = 2.62) and among women with a breastfeeding support program at workplace (OR = 5.93) Very low
Dabritz HA, Hinton BG, Babb J. (2009) [44] USA (California) Mothers who resided in Yolo County at the time of delivery, infant was between 0 and 8 months old at the time they signed up to participate (n = 399) Cross-sectional -Designated spaces for BF or expressing milk
-Flexible scheduling to support milk expression
-Support from colleagues
Almost EBF, BF and formula feeding (mixed feeding), infant formula feeding only (at 6 months) Polytomous logistic regression that incorporated a proportional odds model Not statistically significant results Low
Smith JP, McIntyre E, Craig L, Javanparast S, Strazdins L, Mortensen K (2013) [45] Australia Female employees with children aged two years and younger (n = 356) Cross-sectional -Written policies to support BF employees
-Flexible scheduling to support milk expression
-Designated spaces for BF or expressing milk
-Work from home (i.e., home-office) or reduced hours
-Support from colleagues
EBF Bivariate EBF was significantly more prevalent among women who had flexibility to BF or express milk at the workplace, or worked in a place with a written policy to support breastmilk expression and BF at work Very low
  1. 1 BF Breastfeeding, 2 EBF Exclusive breastfeeding, 3 OR Odds ratio