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Table 2 Rating Results for ‘Race’/ethnic Based Discrimination

From: Experiences of everyday racism in Toronto’s health care system: a concept mapping study

Cluster Statement HCPs Non-racialized HCUs Racialized HCUs
Cluster 1: Dehumanizing the patient   moderate low moderate
when the health care provider is disrespectful [15]. high moderate high
when the health care provider belittles or talks down to the patient [3]. moderate moderate high
when the health care provider does not show empathy or sympathy [13]. moderate low moderate
when the health care provider or health care support staff are impatient with the patient [8]. moderate low moderate
when health care provider is impatient with the family after the patient dies [5]. low low moderate
when the health care provider will not listen to the patient or pretends that they do not hear the patient [1]. low low moderate
Cluster 2: Negligent communication   low low moderate
when the health care provider does not consider the patient’s concerns about the plan of treatment [20]. moderate low moderate
when the patient’s symptoms are ignored or not taken seriously [10]. moderate low moderate
when the health care provider lies to the patient [19]. low low moderate
when the health care provider does not listen to patient’s medical history before prescribing medication [4]. low low moderate
when the health care support staff places the patient’s phone call on hold and then disconnects them [6]. low low low
when the health care provider willfully misunderstands the patient’s concerns [9]. low low moderate
Cluster 3: Unequal access to health & health services   moderate low moderate
when there is little or no access to language interpreters [30]. moderate moderate high
when the health care provider tells the patient that they cannot keep them as their patient because they have enough patients [35]. low low low
when the patient cannot make an appointment to see their health care provider with a two-week timeframe [16]. low low low
when a patient cannot get access to government funded assist programs because of where the patient lives [2]. low low moderate
Cluster 4: Professional misconduct   low low moderate
when the patient is discharged prematurely from the hospital [27]. moderate low moderate
when a patient’s message for the health care provider is not relayed by the health care support staff [23]. moderate low low
when the health care provider does not provide the requested information [25]. low low low
when the health care provider does not provide the correct treatment [11]. low low low
when the health care provider does not read the patient’s medical history resulting in negligent care [26]. low low low
when the patient’s pain is not treated [12]. low low moderate
when the health care provider does not provide a referral to see a health care specialist [14]. low low moderate
when the health care provider does not complete a proper assessment [34]. low low moderate
Cluster 5: Racial/ethnic & class discrimination   moderate moderate high
when the White male health care provider continuously picks on the non-White patient [22]. high high high
when the patient feels disrespected and not listened to by health care providers because of language issues [31]. high high high
when the health care provider wrongly assumes that the patient does not speak English [32]. high high high
when health care providers or health care staff look down on the patient because of their appearance [18] moderate high high
when the White health care provider talks to the patient as if they are uneducated [29]. moderate high high
when health care provider is unfamiliar with different religious or cultural practices in caring for a loved one who has died [28]. moderate high high
when the health care provider engages in victim blaming [17]. moderate moderate high
when the patient’s concern is thought of by the health care provider as being superstitious [21]. moderate moderate high
when the patient is wrongly judged to be ‘drug seeking’ [7]. moderate moderate moderate
when a patient on social assistance is treated in a separate area with fewer resources [33]. moderate low moderate
when the patient is looked down on by the health care provider or health care staff for using public transportation [24]. low low moderate
  1. Note. a HCPs = health care providers
  2. b HCUs = health care users