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Table 2 Identification of under-served areas in terms of travel time

From: An integrated analysis of spatial access to the three-tier healthcare delivery system in China: a case study of Hainan Island

Type Multilevel healthcare access zones
A Effective service zone
B Lack of Tier 1 healthcare facilities
C Lack of Tier 2 healthcare facilities
D Lack of Tier 3 healthcare facilities
E Lack of Tier 2 and Tier 1 healthcare facilities
F Lack of Tier 3 and Tier 1 healthcare facilities
G Lack of Tier 3 and Tier 2 healthcare facilities
H Lack of all tiers of healthcare facilities
  1. Note: The Tier 1 healthcare institutions are clinics in urban areas and village clinics in rural areas. The Tier 2 healthcare institutions are CHCs in urban areas and THCs in rural areas. The Tier 3 healthcare institutions are hospitals. Based on the “one-hour circle to hospital care” and “30-min to primary care in rural areas and 15-min to primary care in urban areas” policy of Hainan Province, areas that do not meet the following requirements were identified as under-served:
  2. Tier 3 healthcare institutions: travel time to hospital ≤60 min;
  3. Tier 2 healthcare institutions: travel time to THCs ≤30 min or to CHCs ≤15 min;
  4. Tier 1 healthcare institutions: travel time to village clinic ≤30 min or to urban clinic ≤15 min
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