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Table 2 Mixed-effects regression models of the association of hospital bed supply and inequality with maternal mortality ratio, China, 2004–2016

From: Hospital bed supply and inequality as determinants of maternal mortality in China between 2004 and 2016

Variables Log of maternal mortality ratio
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5d
Fixed effects, β (95% CI)
 Hospital beds per 1000 population   −0.201c (−0.268, −0.134) −0.178c (−0.245,-0.110) −0.112c (− 0.191,-0.033) −0.112b (− 0.210, − 0.013)
 Gini coefficient   2.036c (0.941, 3.131) 1.931c (0.840, 3.023) 1.837c (0.762, 2.911) 1.354b (0.123, 2.584)
 Birth rate, ‰    −0.005 (− 0.035, 0.026) −0.010 (− 0.041, 0.020) −0.012 (− 0.046, 0.023)
 Female illiteracy, %    0.020c (0.008, 0.031) 0.018c (0.006, 0.030) 0.022c (0.009, 0.035)
 Log of GDP per capita     −0.382c (− 0.645, − 0.118) −0.406c (− 0.710, − 0.101)
 Year No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Random effects, variance (SE)
 Variance between provinces 0.506 (0.135) 0.405 (0.108) 0.319 (0.089) 0.243 (0.071) 0.222 (0.071)
 Variance within provinces 0.239 (0.018) 0.055 (0.004) 0.055 (0.004) 0.055 (0.004) 0.062 (0.006)
 Residual covariance      0.401 (0.058)
  ICC 0.679 0.881 0.854 0.816 0.783
 -2 Residual log likelihood 671.36 157.92 162.86 157.95 109.70
  AIC 675.36 161.92 166.86 161.95 115.7
  1. Note: CI: confidence interval, SE: standard error, ICC: intraclass correlation, AIC: Akaike info criterion. c, b and a denote 1, 5 and 10% significance levels, respectively. d, Compared with model 4, model 5 further took the serial covariance in MMR across time within provinces into account when measuring the residual effects