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Table 7 Logistic regression of unmet healthcare needs caused by main reasons

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

  Non-use of outpatient services Non-use of inpatient services Early discharge from hospital
OR SD OR SD OR SD
Predisposing factors
 Sex, ref.: male 1.576* 0.314 0.736 0.304 1.185** 0.190
 Age (years), ref.: ≤30   
  30–45 1.415 0.782 1.578 0.908 1.406 0.903
  45–60 1.392** 0.248 1.389 0.601 1.876** 0.628
   > 60 1.838** 0.178 1.739** 0.505 2.171** 0.918
 Marital status, ref.: not married 0.949 0.370 1.313 0.790 1.375* 0.291
 Education level, ref.: less than lower secondary
  Upper secondary & vocational training 0.829* 0.247 0.709 0.353 0.945 0.400
  Tertiary 0.597** 0.186 0.874** 0.227 0.639** 0.194
 Employment status, ref.: employment   
  Unemployment 0.997 0.558 1.297** 0.274 0.948 0.470
  Retired 0.495*** 0.097 1.507 0.622 1.193 0.593
  Family size, ref.: ≤2 1.190 0.546 0.903* 0.114 1.354 0.742
Enabling factors
 Social health insurance, ref.: have no insurance 1.275 0.336 0.312*** 0.083 0.875 0.501
 Income level, ref.: ≤¥13,334   
  ¥13,334–24,915 0.974 0.483 0.629** 0.148 1.094 0.590
  ¥24,915–39,967 0.850 0.324 0.310*** 0.077 0.905 0.532
   > ¥39,967 0.645 0.290 0.202*** 0.082 0.654* 0.212
 Financial subsidies: ref.: have financial subsidies 1.290 0.596 0.387*** 0.115 1.099 0.601
 Area of residence, ref.: urban 0.840 0.250 1.179 0.596 1.178 0.578
Need factors
 Self-reported health status (value on VAS), ref.: excellent
  Good 1.180 0.623 1.820 0.793 0.879 0.283
  Fair 0.908 0.421 1.576 0.669 0.913* 0.301
  Poor 0.718 0.207 1.845 0.858 0.698 0.411
 Depression, ref.: not depressed 0.747** 0.190 1.094 0.480 0.855** 0.146
 Smoking, ref.: smoked 1.009 0.393 1.003 0.502 1.084 0.394
 Drinking, ref.: drank 0.890 0.155 0.822 0.348 0.747 0.401
 Chronic disease, ref.:0
  One chronic disease 0.735*** 0.110 1.997** 0.839 0.693* 0.171
  Multiple chronic disease 0.379*** 0.130 2.624** 1.095 0.402** 0.103
 Year, ref.:2008
  2013 1.090 0.388 0.897* 0.248 1.403 0.834
  2018 0.954* 0.173 0625** 0.173 0.811 0.338
 Year2013*Social health insurance 1.032 0.491 0.901 0.418 1.193 0.579
 Year2018*Social health insurance 0.832 0.290 0.309** 0.104 0.975 0.628
  1. Note: *** indicates p value < 0.001, ** indicates p value < 0.01, * indicates p value < 0.05, SD standard deviation, OR odd ratio
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