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Table 2 Sample characteristics divided by living areas (urban & rural)

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

 

Total

Urban

Rural

p

n = 25,048

n = 10,973 (43.81%)

n = 14,075 (56.19%)

value

Year

   

0.000

 2008

23.95%

12.73%

32.69%

 

 2013

36.82%

42.61%

32.31%

 

 2018

39.23%

44.66%

35.00%

 

Predisposing factors

 Sex

   

0.055

  Male

48.85%

48.16%

49.39%

 

  Female

51.15%

51.84%

50.61%

 

 Age (years)

   

0.000

   ≤ 30

17.45%

16.99%

17.80%

 

  30–45

21.10%

20.39%

21.66%

 

  45–60

30.32%

26.34%

33.42%

 

   > 60

31.13%

36.28%

27.11%

 

 Family size

   

0.000

   ≤ 2

25.71%

30.75%

21.79%

 

   > 2

74.29%

69.25%

78.21%

 

 Marital status

   

0.006

  Married

80.70%

79.92%

81.31%

 

  Not married

19.30%

20.08%

18.69%

 

 Education level

   

0.000

  Less than lower secondary

68.63%

53.71%

80.26%

 

  Upper secondary & vocational training

18.36%

23.48%

14.37%

 

  Tertiary

13.01%

22.81%

5.37%

 

 Employment status

   

0.000

  Employed

64.94%

48.55%

77.71%

 

  Not employed

19.53%

19.02%

19.94%

 

  Retired

15.53%

32.43%

2.35%

 

Enabling factors

 Income level

   

0.000

   ≤ ¥13,334

25.44%

8.38%

38.74%

 

  ¥13,334–24,915

24.60%

19.45%

28.61%

 

  ¥24,915–39,967

25.10%

32.39%

19.42%

 

   > ¥39,967

24.86%

39.78%

13.23%

 

 Financial subsidies

   

0.000

  Yes

3.78%

2.83%

4.53%

 

  No

96.22%

97.17%

95.47%

 

 Social health insurance

   

0.000

  Yes

96.47%

96.14%

96.74%

 

  No

3.53%

3.86%

3.26%

 

Need factors

 Depression

   

0.000

  Not depressed

94.83%

96.26%

93.71%

 

  Depressed

5.17%

3.74%

6.29%

 

 Self-reported health status (value on VAS)

   

0.000

  Excellent (80–100)

75.95%

75.19%

76.53%

 

  Good (70–80)

12.84%

14.01%

11.93%

 

  Fair (50–70)

9.78%

9.63%

9.90%

 

  Poor (< 50)

1.43%

1.17%

1.64%

 

 Smoking

   

0.056

  Yes

26.05%

25.45%

26.52%

 

  No

73.95%

74.55%

73.48%

 

 Drinking

   

0.024

  Yes

22.67%

21.99%

23.20%

 

  No

77.33%

78.01%

76.80%

 

 Chronic diseases

   

0.000

  0

69.06%

63.56%

73.34%

 

  One

23.55%

26.60%

21.17%

 

  Multiple

7.39%

9.84%

5.49%