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Table 1 Descriptions of dependent and independent variables

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

  Categories Indicators/survey questions
Dependent variables
 Non-use of outpatient services =1, Reported non-use of outpatient services
=0, No reported non-use of outpatient services
Questions: Have you been ill in the last two weeks? What was the main reason for not seeking outpatient treatment?
 Non-use of inpatient services =1, Reported non-use of inpatient services
=0, No reported non-use of inpatient services
Question: In the past year, did a doctor suggest that you needed inpatient care but you were not hospitalized? What was the main reason for not seeking inpatient treatment?
 Non-use of physical examinations =1, Did not undergo physical examination
=0, Underwent physical examination
Question: Have you had a physical examination in the past 12 months?
 Early discharge from the hospital =1, Reported early discharge from the hospital
=0, No reported early discharge from the hospital
Question: In the year before the survey, were you ever discharged early from hospital? What was the main
reason for your self-discharge?
Independent variables
 Predisposing factors
  Sex = 1, Male, = 2, Female Question: What is your sex?
  Age (years) =1, if ≤30; =2, 30–45; =3, 45–60; =4, if ≥60 Question: Year of birth.
  Marital status =1, not married;=2, married Question: What is your marital status? (Widowhood and divorce both belong to “not married”.)
  Employment/retirement status =1, employed; =2, not employed; =3, retired Question: What is your employment status?
  Education level =1, less than lower secondary;
=2, upper secondary & vocational training;
=3, tertiary
Question: What is your education level?
  Family size =1, if ≤2 persons in household;
=2, if ≥3 persons in household
Number of household members
 Enabling factors
  Social health insurance =1, have insurance;
=0, have no insurance
Question: Do you have any social health insurance?
  Income level =1, ≤¥13,334;
=2, ¥13,334–24,915;
=3, ¥24,915–39,967;
=4, ≥¥39,967
Yearly household income divided by the number of household members; first household member with a weight of 1, all following household members with a weight of 0.5.
  Area of residence =1, urban;
=2, rural
Question: What is your registered type?
  Financial subsidies =1, financial subsidies from government
=2, no financial subsidies from government
Whether the respondent was a Medicaid recipient or in a poor household or low-income household
 Need variables
  Self-reported health status(Value on VAS) =1, excellent (80–100);
=2, good (70–80);
=3, fair (50–70);
=4, poor (≤49)
Question: Which score best represents your health today?
  Chronic diseases =0, no chronic;
=1, one chronic;
=2, multiple chronic diseases
Questions: Do you have confirmed hypertension?
Do you have confirmed diabetes?
Do you have other chronic diseases diagnosed?
  Depression =1, depressed;
=0, not depressed
Question: What is the extent of your anxiety or depression?
  Drinking =1, yes;
=2, no
Whether the respondent ever drank alcoholic beverages or is presently a drinker
  Smoking =1, yes;
=2, no
Whether the respondent reports ever having smoked or is presently a smoker