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Table 1 Descriptions of dependent and independent variables

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey



Indicators/survey questions

Dependent variables

 Non-use of outpatient services

=1, Reported non-use of outpatient services

=0, No reported non-use of outpatient services

Questions: Have you been ill in the last two weeks? What was the main reason for not seeking outpatient treatment?

 Non-use of inpatient services

=1, Reported non-use of inpatient services

=0, No reported non-use of inpatient services

Question: In the past year, did a doctor suggest that you needed inpatient care but you were not hospitalized? What was the main reason for not seeking inpatient treatment?

 Non-use of physical examinations

=1, Did not undergo physical examination

=0, Underwent physical examination

Question: Have you had a physical examination in the past 12 months?

 Early discharge from the hospital

=1, Reported early discharge from the hospital

=0, No reported early discharge from the hospital

Question: In the year before the survey, were you ever discharged early from hospital? What was the main

reason for your self-discharge?

Independent variables

 Predisposing factors


= 1, Male, = 2, Female

Question: What is your sex?

  Age (years)

=1, if ≤30; =2, 30–45; =3, 45–60; =4, if ≥60

Question: Year of birth.

  Marital status

=1, not married;=2, married

Question: What is your marital status? (Widowhood and divorce both belong to “not married”.)

  Employment/retirement status

=1, employed; =2, not employed; =3, retired

Question: What is your employment status?

  Education level

=1, less than lower secondary;

=2, upper secondary & vocational training;

=3, tertiary

Question: What is your education level?

  Family size

=1, if ≤2 persons in household;

=2, if ≥3 persons in household

Number of household members

 Enabling factors

  Social health insurance

=1, have insurance;

=0, have no insurance

Question: Do you have any social health insurance?

  Income level

=1, ≤¥13,334;

=2, ¥13,334–24,915;

=3, ¥24,915–39,967;

=4, ≥¥39,967

Yearly household income divided by the number of household members; first household member with a weight of 1, all following household members with a weight of 0.5.

  Area of residence

=1, urban;

=2, rural

Question: What is your registered type?

  Financial subsidies

=1, financial subsidies from government

=2, no financial subsidies from government

Whether the respondent was a Medicaid recipient or in a poor household or low-income household

 Need variables

  Self-reported health status(Value on VAS)

=1, excellent (80–100);

=2, good (70–80);

=3, fair (50–70);

=4, poor (≤49)

Question: Which score best represents your health today?

  Chronic diseases

=0, no chronic;

=1, one chronic;

=2, multiple chronic diseases

Questions: Do you have confirmed hypertension?

Do you have confirmed diabetes?

Do you have other chronic diseases diagnosed?


=1, depressed;

=0, not depressed

Question: What is the extent of your anxiety or depression?


=1, yes;

=2, no

Whether the respondent ever drank alcoholic beverages or is presently a drinker


=1, yes;

=2, no

Whether the respondent reports ever having smoked or is presently a smoker